SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
For the transition period from ___________ to __________
Commission file number :
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
Ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share
The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited
*Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing of American depositary shares on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
(Title of Class)
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
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Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:
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If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or (15) (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
☐ Yes ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☐
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:
☐ Item 17 ☐ Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.
☐ Yes ☐ No
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections
This annual report on Form 20-F includes our audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2021 and 2022 and for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022. Translations in this annual report of amounts from RMB into U.S. dollars for the convenience of the reader were calculated at the noon buying rate of US$1.00: RMB6.8972 on the last trading day of 2022 (December 30, 2022) as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the U.S. Federal Reserve Board.
Conventions that Apply to This Annual Report on Form 20-F
Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this annual report on Form 20-F to:
|●||“2009 RSU Plan” are to our 2009 Restricted Share Unit Plan adopted in November 2009;|
|●||“2019 Share Plan” are to our Amended and Restated 2019 Share Incentive Plan adopted in October 2019 and amended and restated in February 2023;|
|●||“ADSs” are to the American depositary shares, each of which represents five ordinary shares;|
|●||“Boguan” are to Guangzhou Boguan Telecommunication Technology Co., Ltd., a company established under PRC laws;|
|●||“CAC” are to the Cyberspace Administration of China;|
|●||“CBIRC” are to the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission;|
|●||“CBRC” are to the China Banking Regulatory Commission;|
|●||“CCASS” are to the Central Clearing and Settlement System established and operated by Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hong Kong Exchange and Clearing Limited;|
|●||“CCGs” are to collectible card games;|
|●||“China” or the “PRC” are to the People’s Republic of China; and only in the context of describing PRC rules, laws, regulations, regulatory authority and other legal or tax matters in this annual report, excludes Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau (also referred to as “China mainland” or “Chinese mainland” in this annual report);|
|●||“Cloud Music” are to Cloud Music Inc. (formerly named Cloud Village Inc.), a company incorporated under Cayman Islands laws, and listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange under the stock code “9899” in December 2021 and a majority-controlled subsidiary of our company;|
|●||“CSRC” are to the China Securities Regulatory Commission;|
|●||“GAPP” are to the General Administration of Press and Publication of China, currently known as the NPPA;|
|●||“Guangzhou NetEase” are to Guangzhou NetEase Computer System Co., Ltd., a company established under PRC laws;|
|●||“Hangzhou Leihuo” are to Hangzhou NetEase Leihuo Technology Co., Ltd. (formerly named Hangzhou NetEase Leihuo Network Co., Ltd.), a company established under PRC laws;|
|●||“Hangzhou NetEase Cloud Music” are to Hangzhou NetEase Cloud Music Technology Co., Ltd., a company established under PRC laws;|
|●||“Hangzhou Yuedu” are to Hangzhou Yuedu Technology Co., Ltd., a company established under PRC laws;|
|●||“HK$” or “HK dollars” are to the legal currency of Hong Kong;|
|●||“HNTEs” are to High and New Technology Enterprises;|
|●||“Hong Kong Listing Rules” are to the Rules Governing the Listing of Securities on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited, as amended or supplemented from time to time;|
|●||“Hong Kong Stock Exchange” are to The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited;|
|●||“Hong Kong NetEase” are to Hong Kong NetEase Interactive Entertainment Limited, a company incorporated under Hong Kong laws;|
|●||“ICP(s)” are to internet content provider(s);|
|●||“in-house developed games” are primarily to games developed solely by our game development teams as well as, in some instances, games co-developed with our collaboration partners;|
|●||“MAUs” for Cloud Music’ online music services are to the monthly average number of users in a given period that have accessed the NetEase Cloud Music application at least once in a given month through mobile devices or PC devices, as the case may be; duplicate access is eliminated from the calculation based on our estimates by user account;|
|●||“MAUs” for Youdao are to the average of the monthly number of unique mobile or PC devices, as the case may be, through which such product and service is accessed at least once in that month (duplicate access to different products and services is not eliminated from the calculation) for a specific period with respect to each of Youdao’s products and services (except for smart devices). MAUs for Youdao are calculated using internal company data, treating each distinguishable device as a separate MAU even though some users may access Youdao’s products and services using more than one device and multiple users may access our services using the same device;|
|●||“MMORPGs” are to massively multi-player online role-playing games;|
|●||“MII” and later “MIIT” are to the Ministry of Information Industry of China, which later became the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China;|
|●||“MOBA” are to multi-player online battle arena;|
|●||“MOC” and later “MOCT” are to the Ministry of Culture of China which later became the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of China;|
|●||“MOF” are to the Ministry of Finance of China;|
|●||“MOFCOM” are to the Ministry of Commerce of China;|
|●||“NCIIC” are to the Ministry of Public Security’s National Citizen Identity Information Center of China;|
|●||“NDRC” are to the National Development and Reform Commission of China;|
|●||“NetEase Hangzhou” are to NetEase (Hangzhou) Network Co., Ltd., a company established under PRC laws;|
|●||“NMT” are to neural machine translation;|
|●||“NPPA” are to the National Press and Publication Administration of China;|
|●||“NRTA” are to the National Radio and Television Administration of China;|
|●||“OCR” are to optical character recognition;|
|●||“our company” are to NetEase, Inc., which is not a PRC operating company but a Cayman Islands holding company with operations primarily conducted through (i) our China mainland subsidiaries and (ii) contractual arrangements with the variable interest entities, or the VIEs, based in China mainland. This structure entails unique risks to investors, see Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure” for additional information;|
|●||“R&D” are to research and development;|
|●||“RMB” or “Renminbi” are to the legal currency of the People’s Republic of China;|
|●||“RPGs” are to role-playing games;|
|●||“PBOC” are to the People’s Bank of China;|
|●||“SAFE” are to the State Administration of Foreign Exchange of China;|
|●||“SAIC” are to the State Administration for Industry and Commerce of China, currently known as SAMR;|
|●||“SAMR” are to the State Administration for Market Regulation of China;|
|●||“SAPPRFT” are to State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television of China, formerly the General Administration of Press and Publication of China and the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television of China, and since March 2018 has been reformed and became the National Radio and Television Administration and the National Press and Publication Administration (National Copyright Administration);|
|●||“SCIO” are to the State Council Information Office of China;|
|●||“SEC” are to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission;|
|●||“SFO” are to the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Chapter 571 of the Laws of Hong Kong), as amended or supplemented from time to time;|
|●||“shareholder(s)” are to holder(s) of shares and, where the context requires, ADSs;|
|●||“share(s)” or “ordinary share(s)” are to ordinary share(s) of our company with par value of US$0.0001 per share;|
|●||“SLGs” are to simulation games;|
|●||“STA” are to the State Taxation Administration of China;|
|●||“State Council” are to the State Council of China;|
|●||“US$,” “dollars” and “U.S. dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States;|
|●||“U.S. Exchange Act” are to the United States Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder;|
|●||“U.S. GAAP” are to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States;|
|●||“we,” “us,” “our,” “NetEase” or “NetEase group” are to NetEase, Inc., its subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, the variable interest entities in China mainland, including, but not limited to, Guangzhou NetEase, Hangzhou Leihuo, Youdao Computer and Hangzhou Yuedu; all of the variable interest entities are domestic companies incorporated in China mainland in which we do not have any equity ownership but whose financial results have been consolidated into our consolidated financial statements based solely on contractual arrangements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. See Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Our Organizational Structure” for an illustrative diagram of our corporate structure;|
|●||“Youdao” are to Youdao, Inc., a company incorporated under Cayman Islands laws, and listed on The New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “DAO” in October 2019 and a majority-controlled subsidiary of our company;|
|●||“Youdao Computer” are to Beijing NetEase Youdao Computer System Co., Ltd., a company established under PRC laws; and|
|●||“Youdao Information” are to NetEase Youdao Information Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., a company established under PRC laws.|
Trademarks and Service Marks
We own or have been licensed the rights to trademarks, service marks and trade names for use in connection with the operation of our business. All other trademarks, service marks or trade names appearing in this annual report that are not identified as marks owned by us are the property of their respective owners.
Solely for convenience, some trademarks, service marks and trade names referred to in this annual report are listed without the ®, (TM) and (sm) symbols, but we will assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our applicable rights in these trademarks, service marks and trade names.
This annual report on Form 20-F contains statements of a forward-looking nature. These statements are made under the “safe harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You can identify these forward-looking statements by terminology such as “will,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “future,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “estimates” and similar statements. The accuracy of these statements may be impacted by a number of business risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected or anticipated, including:
|●||the risk that the online game market, including mobile games and PC games, will not continue to grow or that we will not be able to maintain our leading position in that market, which could occur if, for example, our new online games or expansion packs and other improvements to such existing games do not become as popular as management anticipates;|
|●||the risk that we will not be successful in our product diversification efforts, including the expansion of our mobile and other games into overseas markets, our entry into strategic licensing arrangements and the expansion of our streaming music offerings and online education services;|
|●||the risk of changes in Chinese government regulation of the online game, online education, online music, live streaming, e-commerce or online advertising markets that limit future growth of our revenues or cause our revenues to decline;|
|●||the risk that we may not be able to continuously develop new and creative online services or that we will not be able to set, or follow in a timely manner, trends in the market;|
|●||the risk that we will not be able to control our expenses in future periods;|
|●||the risk related to governmental uncertainties (including possible changes in the effective tax rates applicable to us and our subsidiaries and affiliates and our ability to receive and maintain approvals of the preferential tax treatments), general competition and price pressures in the marketplace;|
|●||the risk related to economic uncertainty and capital market disruption, which are significantly impacted by rising inflation and geopolitical instability;|
|●||the risk related to the expansion of our businesses and operations internationally;|
|●||the risk that fluctuations in the value of the Renminbi with respect to other currencies could adversely affect our business and financial results; and|
|●||other risks outlined in our filings with the SEC.|
We do not undertake any obligation to update this forward-looking information, except as required under applicable law.
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisors
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Our Corporate Structure and Contractual Arrangements with the Variable Interest Entities
NetEase, Inc. is not a PRC operating company but a Cayman Islands holding company with operations primarily conducted through (i) our subsidiaries incorporated in China mainland, or China mainland subsidiaries, and (ii) contractual arrangements with the variable interest entities based in China mainland. Our online games, music streaming, online intelligent learning services and internet content services businesses in China mainland have been conducted through the applicable VIEs in order to comply with the laws and regulations of China mainland, which restrict and impose conditions on foreign direct investment in companies involved in the provision of such businesses. Accordingly, we operate these businesses in China mainland through the variable interest entities, and rely on contractual arrangements among NetEase, Inc., our China mainland subsidiaries, the variable interest entities and their nominee shareholders to control the business operations of the variable interest entities. In 2020, 2021 and 2022, the amount of revenues generated by the VIEs accounted for 84.4%, 85.9% and 86.4%, respectively, of our total net revenues. As of December 31, 2021 and 2022, total assets of the VIEs, excluding amounts due from other companies in the NetEase group, represented 8.5% and 7.1% of our consolidated total assets as of the same dates, respectively. As used in this annual report, “our company” refers to NetEase, Inc., whereas “we,” “us,” “our,” “NetEase” or “NetEase group” refers to NetEase, Inc., its subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, the variable interest entities in China mainland. All of the variable interest entities are domestic companies incorporated in China mainland in which we do not have any equity ownership, but their financial results have been consolidated into our consolidated financial statements based solely on contractual arrangements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Investors in our ADSs or ordinary shares are not purchasing equity interest in the variable interest entities in China mainland but instead are purchasing equity interest in a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands.
Our subsidiaries, the variable interest entities and their nominee shareholders have entered into a series of contractual agreements. These contractual arrangements:
|●||enable us to receive the economic benefits that could potentially be significant to the variable interest entities in consideration for the services provided by our subsidiaries; and|
|●||effectively assigned all of the voting rights underlying the nominee shareholders’ equity interest in the variable interest entities to us.|
These contractual arrangements among NetEase, Inc., our subsidiaries, the variable interest entities and their nominee shareholders generally include shareholder voting rights trust agreements, loan agreements, operating agreements or cooperation agreements, license agreements and purchase and equity pledge agreements, as the case may be. For additional information on these contractual arrangements, see Item 7.B. “Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions—Material VIE Agreements.” As a result of the contractual arrangements, the shareholders of the variable interest entities effectively assigned all of their voting rights underlying their equity interest in the variable interest entities to the primary beneficiaries of these companies, which gives our company or its subsidiaries the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the variable interest entities’ economic performance. However, the contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over the variable interest entities, and we may incur substantial costs to enforce the terms of the arrangements. If the variable interest entities or the nominee shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we could be limited in our ability to enforce the contractual arrangements that effectively assigned us the voting rights in the variable interest entities. As of the date of the filing of this annual report, to the best knowledge of NetEase, our directors and management, the contractual arrangements with the VIEs have not been tested in a court of law in China mainland. Furthermore, if we are unable to maintain such effective assignment, we would not be able to continue to consolidate the financial results of these entities in our financial statements. See Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure.”
There are also substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future laws, regulations and rules of China mainland regarding the status of the rights of our Cayman Islands holding company with respect to its contractual arrangements with the variable interest entities and their nominee shareholders. It is uncertain whether any new laws or regulations of China mainland relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. If we or any of the variable interest entities is found to be in violation of any existing or future laws or regulations of China mainland, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations to take action in dealing with such violations or failures. See Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations, and rules relating to the agreements that establish the VIE structure for our operations in China, including potential future actions by the PRC government, which could affect the enforceability of our contractual arrangements with the VIEs and, consequently, significantly affect the financial condition and results of operations performance of NetEase. If the PRC government finds such agreements non-compliant with relevant PRC laws, regulations, and rules, or if these laws, regulations, and rules or the interpretation thereof change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in the VIEs.”
Although the Foreign Investment Law of the China mainland does not explicitly classify contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, the definition of “foreign investment” thereunder is relatively wide and contains a catch-all provision which includes investments made by foreign investors through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, there is no assurance that foreign investment via contractual arrangement would not be interpreted as a type of indirect foreign investment activities in the future. If any of the variable interest entities were deemed as a foreign-invested enterprise under any such future laws, administrative regulations or provisions and any of our business would be included in any negative list or other form of restrictions on foreign investment, we may need to take further actions to comply with such future laws, administrative regulations or provisions. Such actions may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition, result of operations and prospects. In addition, if the PRC regulatory authorities were to find our legal structure and contractual arrangements to be in violation of any laws, administrative regulations or provisions of China mainland, we are uncertain what impact of above PRC regulatory authorities’ actions would have on us and our ability to consolidate the variable interest entities in the consolidated financial statements. For more details, see Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure— Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to how the 2019 Foreign Investment Law may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.”
The necessary licenses to conduct many of our businesses in China mainland, including to operate our online games, music streaming, online intelligent learning services and internet content services businesses, are held by the variable interest entities and, as noted above, a significant part of our revenues are generated by the variable interest entities. An event that results in the deconsolidation of the variable interest entities would have a material effect on our operations and result in the value of the securities of our company diminishing substantially or even become worthless. Our company, our China mainland subsidiaries and the variable interest entities, and investors of our company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with the variable interest entities and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of the variable interest entities and our company as a whole. NetEase, Inc. may not be able to repay its indebtedness, and the ADSs or ordinary shares of our company may decline in value or become worthless, if we are unable to assert our contractual control rights over the assets of our China mainland subsidiaries and the variable interest entities that conduct a major portion of our operations. For a detailed description of the risks associated with our corporate structure, please refer to risks disclosed under Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure.”
The PRC government has significant authority to exert influence on the ability of a China-based company, like us, to conduct its business, accept foreign investments or be listed on a U.S. stock exchange. We also face risks associated with recent statements and regulatory actions by the PRC government, including those related to regulatory approvals of offshore securities offerings, anti-monopoly regulatory investigations and actions, cybersecurity and data privacy compliance. For example, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight over overseas securities offerings and published a series of laws and regulations to regulate such transactions. If the CSRC, CAC or other PRC regulatory agencies determine that prior approval is required for any of our offerings of securities overseas or maintenance of the trading status of our ADSs or ordinary shares, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain such approval in a timely manner, or at all. The CSRC, CAC or other PRC regulatory agencies may also take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, not to proceed with such offering or maintain the trading status of our ADSs or ordinary shares. If we proceed with any of such offering or maintain the trading status of our ADSs or ordinary shares without obtaining the CSRC’s, CAC’s or other PRC regulatory agencies’ approval to the extent it is required, or if we are unable to comply with any new approval requirements which might be adopted for offerings that we have completed, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC, CAC or other PRC regulatory agencies. These regulatory agencies may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China or accept foreign investments, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from offering of securities overseas into China or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of our ordinary shares or ADSs.
The PRC government may also intervene with or influence our operations as it deems appropriate to further regulatory, political and societal goals. The PRC government has recently published new policies that affected various industries, including industries in which we operate in, and we cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future release regulations or policies regarding our industry that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any such action, once taken by the PRC government, could cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless.
For more information on the permissions required from the PRC authorities for our operations and offerings, please also see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Permissions Required from the PRC Authorities for Our Operations and Offerings.”
For information on transfers of funds within the NetEase group, certain financial information of NetEase, Inc., its subsidiaries and the VIEs and the restrictions on foreign exchange and the ability to transfer cash between entities, across borders and to U.S. investors, see Item 5.B. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Transfer of Funds” and “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Management of Capital Resources,” Item 10.E. “Additional Information—Taxation” and Item 10.D. “Additional Information—Exchange Controls.”
The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act
Pursuant to the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspections by the PCAOB for two consecutive years, the SEC will prohibit our shares or the ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report to notify the SEC of its determination that the PCAOB was unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in China mainland and Hong Kong, including our auditor. In May 2022, the SEC conclusively listed us as a Commission-Identified Issuer under the HFCAA following the filing of our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB issued a report that vacated its December 16, 2021 determination and removed China mainland and Hong Kong from the list of jurisdictions where it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms. For this reason, we do not expect to be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer under the HFCAA after we file this annual report on Form 20-F. Each year, the PCAOB will determine whether it can inspect and investigate completely audit firms in China mainland and Hong Kong, among other jurisdictions. If the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms in China mainland and Hong Kong and we continue to use an accounting firm headquartered in one of these jurisdictions to issue an audit report on our financial statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, we would be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer following the filing of the annual report on Form 20-F for the relevant fiscal year. There can be no assurance that we would not be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer for any future fiscal year, and if we were so identified for two consecutive years, we would become subject to the prohibition on trading under the HFCAA. See Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks related to Our ADSs and Shares—The PCAOB had historically been unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of our auditor in the past has deprived our investors with the benefits of such inspections.” and Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks related to Our ADSs and Shares—Our ADSs may be prohibited from trading in the United States under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate auditors located in China. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.”
B. Capitalization and Indebtedness
C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
D. Risk Factors
Summary of Risk Factors
An investment in our ADSs or ordinary shares involves significant risks. Below is a summary of material risks we face, organized under relevant headings. All the operational risks associated with being based in and having operations in China mainland also apply to operations in Hong Kong. With respect to the legal risks associated with being based in and having operations in China mainland, the laws, regulations and the discretion of China mainland governmental authorities discussed in this annual report are expected to apply to China mainland entities and businesses, rather than entities or businesses in Hong Kong which operate under a different set of laws from China mainland. These risks are discussed more fully in Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors.”
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
|●||Risks Related to Our Games and Related Value-added Services|
|●||Risks relating to developing new online games and growing the popularity of existing online games|
|●||Risks relating to claims regarding our gaming contents resulting in negative publicity or a governmental response|
|●||Risks relating to additional restrictions to limit online game playing by the Chinese government|
|●||Risks relating to uncertainties in obtaining approval for new games|
|●||Risks relating to laws, regulations policies and guidelines applicable to the live streaming and online entertainment industries|
|●||Risks relating to international operations of our online games|
|●||Risks relating to third-party platforms that distribute our mobile games and collect payments|
|●||Risks relating to maintaining our existing licenses of game or intellectual property|
|●||Risks relating to illegal game servers, acts of cheating by players and sales and purchases by players of our game accounts and virtual items through third-party auction websites|
|●||Risks Related to Our Other Businesses|
|●||Risks relating to changes in Youdao’s business strategies and offerings|
|●||Risks relating to Youdao business’s compliance with the Opinions on Further Alleviating the Burden of Homework and After-School Tutoring for Students in Compulsory Education and the implementation measures|
|●||Risks relating to changes in user acceptance of Youdao, and market trend of integration of technology and learning, and the development and application of our technologies to support and expand Youdao’s product and services|
|●||Risks relating to obtaining legal and regulatory approvals, licenses or permits of our intelligent learning, music streaming, e-commerce, advertising and other innovative businesses|
|●||Risks relating to obtaining licenses for the music content necessary to provide our music streaming services, and our ability to attract and retain users|
|●||Risks relating to generating and maintaining significant advertising revenue|
|●||Risks relating to growing our e-commerce business|
|●||Risks Related to Our Operations Overall|
|●||Risks relating to competing successfully against new entrants and established industry competitors and keeping up with rapid changes in technologies and user behavior and innovating and exploring new areas of operations|
|●||Risks relating to gross profit margin and profitability affected by changes in our mix of revenues|
|●||Risks relating to credit risk on our accounts receivable|
|●||Risks relating to a prolonged slowdown in the PRC or global economy|
|●||Risks relating to economic uncertainty and capital market disruptions caused by rising inflation and geopolitical instability|
|●||Risks relating to compliance with laws and other obligations regarding data protection in China and outside of China|
|●||Risks relating to breaches of our information technology systems and system failure or performance inadequacy that causes interruptions of our services|
|●||Risks relating to our ability to retain our existing key employees and to add and retain senior officers to our management|
|●||Risks relating to natural disasters, widespread public health problems, other outbreaks and epidemics and other events|
|●||Risks relating to the expansion of our businesses and operations internationally|
Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure
|●||Risks relating to regulatory changes relating to the contractual arrangements with the VIEs and the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations|
|●||Risks relating to maintaining operational control of the VIEs through contractual arrangements|
|●||Risks relating to the shareholders who have significant influence over our company and the variable interest entities|
|●||Risks relating to our arrangements with the variable interest entities|
Risks Related to Doing Business in China
|●||Risks relating to China’s political and economic policies|
|●||Risks relating to compliance with and changes in PRC laws and regulations relating to telecommunications, internet, foreign investment, tax, online games, virtual asset property rights, consumer protection and financial transactions|
|●||Risks relating to claims and liabilities based on the information and content on our platforms|
|●||Risks relating to uncertainties with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the anti-monopoly related laws in the field of internet platforms|
|●||Risks relating to our ability to protect our intellectual property from being infringed|
|●||Risks relating to currency exchange rates|
Risks Related to Our ADSs and Shares
|●||Risks relating to being prohibited from trading on Nasdaq under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB cannot continue to inspect our independent registered public accounting firm for two consecutive years|
|●||Risks relating to the volatility of the trading price of our ADSs and shares|
|●||Risks relating to the different listing rules and regulations that apply to us|
|●||Risks relating to the limitation of the voting, inspection and other rights of holders of ADSs|
You should carefully consider the following risk factors in addition to the other information set forth in this annual report. If any of the following risks were actually to occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations prospects could be adversely affected and the value of our ADSs and shares would likely suffer.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY
Risks Related to Our Games and Related Value-added Services
If we fail to develop and introduce popular, high-quality online games in a timely and successful manner, we will not be able to compete effectively and our ability to generate revenues will suffer.
We operate in a highly competitive, quickly changing environment, and player preferences for online games are difficult to predict. Our future success depends not only on the popularity of our existing online games but also on our ability to develop new high-quality online games and expand our game portfolio with games in a variety of genres that are in line with market trends and to successfully monetize such games. The development of successful new online games can be challenging and requires high levels of innovation, a deep understanding of the online game industry in China and the other markets where our games are published (including with respect to evolving business models), and an ability to anticipate and effectively respond to changing interests and preferences of game players in a timely manner. Moreover, each of our new games requires long periods of time for research and development and testing, and also typically experiences a long ramp-up period as players become familiar with the game. If we are unsuccessful at developing and introducing new online games that are appealing to players with acceptable pricing and terms, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be negatively impacted because we would not be able to compete effectively and our ability to generate revenues would suffer.
In addition, new technologies in online game programming or operations could render our current online titles or games in development obsolete or unattractive to our players, thereby limiting our ability to recover development costs and potentially adversely affecting our future revenues and profitability. For example, in the past, when the gaming industry was transitioning to mobile games, we began devoting significant resources to developing games that can be operated on mobile devices. As of December 31, 2022, we had commercially launched over 100 mobile games, including the Fantasy Westward Journey mobile game, Westward Journey Online mobile game, Onmyoji, the mobile version of New Ghost, Invincible, Knives Out, Identity V, LifeAfter, Sky, Revelation mobile game, Harry Potter: Magic Awakened, Diablo® ImmortalTM and Eggy Party. While we continue to invest in mobile games, the market for mobile games is rapidly evolving with games in an expanding range of genres being introduced by us and our competitors, and we cannot guarantee that we will be able to effectively compete in the mobile game market. In June 2022, we further launched Naraka: Bladepoint on Xbox Series X and S and plan to launch numerous additional console games in the future. We will also need to continue investing in the development of new technologies, such as virtual reality, and bring new features and functionalities to our games, as well as enhance the user experience on our various platforms.
We are not able to predict if or when we will commercially launch additional new games and the pace at which our new games will penetrate the online game market in China or elsewhere, if at all. A number of factors, including technical difficulties, lack of sufficient game development capabilities, personnel and other resources and failure to obtain or delays in obtaining relevant governmental authorities’ approvals could result in delayed launching of our new games or the cancellation of the development of our pipeline games. Any delays in product releases or problems arising following the commercial release of one or more new online games such as programming errors, or “bugs,” could negatively impact our business and reputation and could cause our results of operations to be materially different from expectations. We believe that expectations of players regarding the quality, performance and integrity of our online games and services are high, and if any of these issues occurs, players may stop playing our online games and may be less likely to return to such games as often in the future, which may negatively impact our business.
If we are unable to continue to extend the life of existing online games that will encourage continued engagement with the games through the addition of new features or functionalities, our business may be negatively impacted.
To prolong the lifespan of our online games, we need to continually improve and update them on a timely basis with new features and functionalities that appeal to existing game players, attract new game players and improve overall player loyalty to such games. As a result, we have devoted, and expect to continue to devote, significant resources to maintain and raise the popularity of our online games through the release of new versions and/or expansion packs on a periodic basis. Developing successful updates and expansion packs for our existing games depends on our ability to anticipate market trends in the online game industry. We must also collect and analyze player behavior data and feedback from our online community in a timely manner, and we must utilize this information to effectively incorporate features into our updates and expansion packs to improve the variety and attractiveness of our gameplay and any virtual items sold within the games.
In the course of operating online games, including the release of updates and expansion packs to existing games, certain game features may periodically be introduced, changed or removed. We cannot assure you that the introduction, change or removal of any game feature will be well received by our game players, who may decide to reduce or eliminate their playing time in response to any such introduction, change or removal. As a result, any introduction, change or removal of game features may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are unable to predict whether these activities will be successful or adversely affect our profitability given the significant resources required. Moreover, because of the rapidly evolving nature of the online games market in China and elsewhere, we cannot estimate the total life cycle of any of our games, particularly our more recently launched mobile or PC games, and changes in players’ tastes or in the overall market for online games in China and elsewhere could alter the life cycle of each version or upgrade or even cause our players to stop playing our games altogether.
The Chinese government has taken steps to limit online game playing time for all minors and to otherwise control the content and operation of online games. These and any other new restrictions on online games may materially and adversely impact our business, financial conditions and results of operations.
As part of its anti-addiction online game policy, the Chinese government has taken several steps to discourage minors under the age of 18 from continuously playing online games once they exceed a set number of hours of continuous play. For example, in April 2007, GAPP and several other government authorities jointly promulgated the Notice Concerning the Protection of Minors’ Physical and Mental Well-being and Implementation of Anti-addiction System on Online Games, or the Anti-Addiction Notice, which confirmed the real-name verification proposal and required online game operators to develop and test their anti-addiction systems from April 2007 to July 2007, after which no online games can be registered or operated without an anti-addiction system in accordance with the Anti-Addiction Notice. Accordingly, we implemented our anti-addiction system to comply with the Anti-Addiction Notice. Since its implementation, we have not experienced a significant negative impact on our business as a result of the Anti-Addiction Notice. The Law of the PRC on the Protection of Minors (“Minors Protection Law”) issued by the National People’s Congress Standing Committee on September 4, 1991 was amended on October 17, 2020 and became effective on June 1, 2021, pursuant to which online game service providers are required to classify the game products in accordance with relevant regulations and standards, give age-appropriate tips and take technical measures to prevent minors from contacting improper game or game function. Violation of the Minors Protection Law could result in rectification, confiscation of illegal gains and penalties. In 2019, the GAPP restricted play of online gamers under 18 years old to 90 minutes on weekdays and three hours on weekends. In September 2021, the Chinese government and regulatory authorities further limited the play of online gamers under 18 by prohibiting play on weekdays and limiting playing for one hour a day on Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays.
To identify that a game player is a minor and thus subject to the online game anti-addiction system, a real-name registration system must be adopted to require players to register their real identity information before playing online games. Pursuant to the Notice Regarding the Initiation of Work on the Online Games Real-Name Verification System to Prevent Online Gaming Addiction, or the Commencement of Real-Name Authentication Notice, issued by eight government authorities on July 1, 2011, online game (excluding mobile game) operators must submit the identity information of game players which needs to be further verified to the National Citizen Identity Information Center, a subordinate public institution of the Ministry of Public Security, for verification since October 1, 2011, in an effort to prevent minors from using an adult’s ID to play online games. Violation of the Anti-addiction Notice and the Commencement of Real-name Authentication Notice could result in the termination of the operation of online games. On August 30, 2018, the Implementation Scheme on Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Adolescent Myopia, or the Implementation Scheme, was issued jointly by eight PRC regulatory authorities at the national level, including the NPPA and the NRTA. The Implementation Scheme provides that as a part of the plan to prevent myopia among children, the NPPA will control the number of new online games and take steps to restrict the amount of time children spend on playing online games. On October 25, 2019, the NPPA promulgated the Notice on Preventing Minors from Indulging in Online Games, according to which the length of minors’ use of online games should be strictly controlled. It requires all online game users to register their identification information. The total length of time for minors to access online games must be limited on a daily basis. Every day from 10:00 pm to 8:00 am the next day, online game companies are not permitted to provide game services to minors in any form. Game services provided to minors must not exceed three hours per day on public holidays and 1.5 hours on other days. In addition, online transactions are capped monthly at RMB200 or RMB400, depending on a minor’s age. On August 30, 2021, the NPPA issued the Notice on Further Strict Administration to Prevent Minors from Indulging in Online Games, which provides that online game operators may only provide one-hour online game services to minors from 8:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. on every Friday, Saturday, Sunday or PRC statutory holiday. In addition, the notice sets forth that all the online games must be connected to the real-name verification system for anti-addiction to online games operated by the NPPA, and online game operators may not provide game services in any form to any users without real-name registration and login. We have updated our anti-addiction systems accordingly to comply with the above-mentioned requirements. We do not believe that the Implementation Scheme has had or will have any material impact on our gaming operations because minors comprise only a small percentage of our total user base, but we cannot assure you that any future regulations or restrictive rules will not adversely affect our operations.
On July 10, 2019, the MOCT announced the abolishment of the Interim Measures for the Administration of Online Games, or the Online Games Measures, which had previously regulated activities related to the online game industry, including requirements that game operators follow new registration procedures, publicize information about the content and suitability of their games, prevent access by minors to inappropriate games, avoid certain types of content in games targeted to minors, avoid game content that compels players to kill other players, manage virtual currency in certain ways and register users with their real identities. As of the date of the filing of this annual report, no laws and regulations had been promulgated or published to replace the Online Games Measures. We cannot be sure if or when any future regulations or restrictive rules in this regard will be promulgated and whether they would negatively impact our operations, including by increasing our compliance costs and negatively impacting our ability to launch and operate new games.
Any difficulties or delays in receiving approval from the relevant government authorities for our new games or new expansion packs for, or material changes to, our existing games could adversely affect such games’ popularity and profitability.
All games we release in China require government approvals. Moreover, even after certain games have received government approvals, certain expansion packs with material changes to the content and additions to the descriptions of those games may require further government approvals. We cannot be certain of the duration of any necessary approval processes, and any delay in receiving such government approvals may adversely affect the profitability and popularity of such games. In particular, game approvals experienced certain delays from March 29, 2018 to December 28, 2018 and again from July 23, 2021 to April 10, 2022 respectively, during which periods the PRC game regulatory authority, the NPPA, did not release any new domestic online game approvals. We are not certain of the cause of the delays. In addition, no laws, regulations or official clarifications had been promulgated or published in relation to such delay and resumption of the assessment and pre-approval procedures. The approval process returned to normal from April 11, 2022, but we cannot predict whether there will be any similar delays in the future, and the effect any future delay in approvals may have on our results of operations. Moreover, we are required to have an Online Publishing Service License issued by the NPPA in order to obtain any such approvals. Our current license has expired, and we are in the process of renewing it, although we cannot be certain if or when such renewal will be granted. During this renewal period, our operations have not been materially affected.
According to several news reports in December 2018, PRC regulators established the Online Games Ethics Committee for the purpose of reviewing online games, and based on the assessment conducted by the Online Games Ethics Committee, PRC regulators reviewed and rejected nine of an initial batch of 20 games. As of the date of the filing of this annual report, no official laws and regulations had been promulgated or published in relation to the assessment criteria and procedures of the Online Games Ethics Committee. However, the formation of the Online Games Ethics Committee and its assessment criteria and procedures could impact our ability to launch and publish new games in China mainland going forward, and require us to spend more time and costs in preparing and receiving the approvals necessary to launch our games. In addition, our games that have already received the relevant pre-approval may also be subject to further review by the Online Games Ethics Committee, and we may be required to modify the content of our games, which will further add to our regulatory compliance costs and expenses.
We are subject to laws related to live streaming and online entertainment industries. Any failure to comply with or any changes in the applicable laws, regulations, policies and guidelines may adversely impact the prospects and results of operations of our services in such industries.
The business and services of live streaming and online entertainment must comply with numerous laws, regulations, policies and guidelines promulgated by PRC authorities. For example, platforms providing show live streaming should have registered their information and business operations by November 30, 2020, and live streaming platforms that provide network audio-visual program services must hold an Audio and Video Service Permission (the “AVSP”) or complete the registration in the National Network Audio-visual Platform Information Registration Management System. For more information, see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Government Regulations—Regulations on Internet Live Streaming Services.”
Regulatory authorities in China have been heightening their oversight of live streaming businesses. Pursuant to applicable PRC laws and regulations, users who have not registered with their real names or who are minors are prohibited from engaging in virtual gifting. Also, live broadcasting service providers are not allowed to register online live broadcasting publisher accounts for minors under the age of 16, and must obtain the consent from parents or guardians and verify the identity of the minors before allowing minors aged 16 or above to register live broadcasting publisher accounts. On August 30, 2021, the MOCT published the Online Performance Brokerage Agencies Measures. According to the Online Performance Brokerage Agencies Measures, online performance brokerage agencies cannot provide online performance brokerage services to minors under the age of 16 and, if online performance brokerage services are provided to minors over the age of 16, identity information of the minors must be verified and written consent must be obtained from their guardians. On May 7, 2022, the Office of the Central Guidance Commission on Building Spiritual Civilization, MOCT, NRTA and CAC jointly issued the Opinions on Regulating Online Live Streaming Virtual Gifting and Strengthening the Protection of Minors, or the Live Streaming Opinions, which reiterate the requirements for live streaming platforms in respect of strengthening real-name registration, restrictions on minors from virtual gifting and prohibition on providing live streaming services to minors. The PRC government may further tighten the account registration and identity verification requirements for minors or impose a higher standard with respect to the registration and identity verification for all users on our platforms in the future, which may require us to upgrade our system, purchase additional services from third-party service providers and incur additional costs. Any such event may deter potential users from registering with our platforms, which may in turn adversely affect the growth of our user base and business prospects.
In addition, the Notice on Strengthening the Administration of Online Show Live and E-commerce Live Streaming, or the Notice 78, Online Performance Brokerage Agencies Measures and the Live Streaming Opinions set forth certain restrictions on inducing users to spend or to promote performers on their platform. For detailed information, please refer to Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Government Regulations —Regulations on Internet Live Streaming Services.” The Notice 78, the Online Performance Brokerage Agencies Measures and the Live Streaming Opinions are relatively new, and the interpretation and enforcement of these regulations involve uncertainties. We cannot guarantee that new rules or regulations promulgated in the future will not impose any additional restrictions on live streaming, especially on virtual gifting. Any limits or restrictions on live streaming ultimately imposed may adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations.
Reports of violence and crimes related to online games or any claims of our gaming contents to be, among others, obscene, superstitious, defamatory or impairing public interest, may result in negative publicity or a governmental response that could have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial conditions and results of operations.
The media in China has reported incidents of violent crimes allegedly inspired by online games and theft of virtual items between users in online games. While we believe that such events were not related to our online games, it is possible that our reputation, as one of the leading online game providers in China, could be adversely affected by such behavior. In response to the media reports, in August 2005 the Chinese government enacted regulations to prohibit all minors under the age of 18 from playing online games in which players are allowed to kill other players, an activity that has been termed Player Kills, or PK. The Chinese government has also taken steps to limit online game playing time for all minors under the age of 18. See “—The Chinese government has taken steps to limit online game playing time for all minors and to otherwise control the content and operation of online games. These and any other new restrictions on online games may materially and adversely impact our business, financial conditions and results of operations.” above. If the Chinese government determines that online games have a negative impact on society, it may impose certain additional restrictions on the online game industry, which could in turn have a material and adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
In addition, the Chinese government and regulatory authorities prohibit any internet content that, among other things, violates PRC laws and regulations, endangers the national security of China, or is obscene, superstitious, violent or defamatory. When internet content providers and internet publishers, including online game operators, find that information falling within the above-mentioned scope is transmitted on their websites or is stored in their electronic bulletin service systems, they are required to terminate the transmission of such information or delete such information immediately, keep records, and report to relevant authorities. Failure to comply with these requirements could result in the revocation of our internet content provider, or ICP, license and other required licenses to operate our business. Internet content providers like us may also be held liable for prohibited information displayed on, retrieved from or linked to their websites. In addition, any claim of us failing to comply with these prohibitions may result in negative publicity and government actions, which in turn could have a material and adverse impact on our business.
Because our long-term growth strategy involves further expansion of our online games to players outside of China, our business will be susceptible to risks associated with international operations.
An important component of our growth strategy involves the further expansion of our online games and game player base internationally. In particular, we have launched our popular games Knives Out, LifeAfter and Identity V in Japan, North America and other markets across the globe, MARVEL Super War in several Southeast Asia markets, The Lord of the Rings: Rise to War in Europe, the Americas, Oceania and Southeast Asia and Naraka: Bladepoint globally. In the future, we plan to continue to launch our online games in various international markets. The expansion of our online games to markets outside of China will involve a variety of risks, including:
In addition, unlike large portion of game players in China mainland who access games through PCs and mobile devices, many game players in international markets play games predominantly via consoles such as Xbox and PlayStation. We launched Naraka: Bladepoint on console in June 2022 and plan to release numerous additional console game releases in the future. We have, however, limited experience developing and marketing console games, and the popularity of such games may not meet our expectations or be as profitable as our PC and mobile games.
Our limited experience in operating our business outside of China increases the risk that any potential future expansion efforts that we may undertake will not be successful. If we invest substantial time and resources to expand our international operations and are unable to do so successfully and in a timely manner, our business and results of operations will suffer.
We rely on third-party platforms to distribute our mobile games and collect payments. If we fail to maintain our relationships with these platforms, or if our revenue-sharing arrangements with these platforms change to our detriment, our mobile games business may be adversely affected.
In addition to our proprietary distribution channels, we publish our mobile games through the Apple iOS app store and other mobile application stores or platforms owned and operated by third parties. We rely on these third parties to promote and distribute our mobile games, record gross billings, maintain the security of their platforms to prevent fraudulent activities, provide certain user services and, in some instances, process payments from users. Further, we believe that our games benefit from the strong brand recognition, large user base and the stickiness of these mobile platforms.
We are subject to these third parties’ standard terms and conditions for application developers, which govern the promotion, distribution and operation of games and other applications on their platforms. If we violate, or if a platform provider believes that we have violated, its terms and conditions, the particular platform provider may discontinue or limit our access to that platform, which could harm our business. Our business could also be harmed if these platforms decline in popularity with users or modify their discovery mechanisms for games, the communication channels available to developers, their terms of service or other policies such as distribution fees, how they label free-to-play games or payment methods for in-app purchases. These platforms’ operators could also develop their own competitive offerings that could compete with our mobile games.
Furthermore, a few of these third-party platforms dominate the mobile application distribution channels. Any changes in the revenue-sharing, payment or other arrangements that we have with any of the major third-party application distribution platforms may materially impact our revenue and profitability. Failure to renew any revenue-sharing agreement or any other material agreement with these major third-party distribution platforms may result in discontinued or limited access to such distribution platforms, which could harm our business. In addition, changes in the credit period or the settlement cycle terms of these third-party platforms may materially and adversely affect our cash flow. Disputes with third-party platforms, such as disputes relating to intellectual property rights, distribution fee arrangements and billing issues, may also arise from time to time and we cannot assure you that we will be able to resolve such disputes in a timely manner or at all. If our collaboration with a major third-party platform terminates for any reason, we may not be able to find a replacement in a timely manner or at all and the distribution of our games may be adversely affected. Any failure on our part to maintain good relationships with a sufficient number of popular platforms for the distribution of our games could cause the number of our game downloads and activations to decrease, which will have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations depend in part on the overall growth of the online game industry in China and the other markets where our games are operated, the growth of which is subject to a number of factors that are beyond our control.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations depend in part on continued growth of the online game industry in China and other markets where our games are published, particularly the Asia-Pacific region and North America. The online game industry is affected by a number of factors that are beyond our control, including:
|●||the availability and popularity of other forms of interactive entertainment, particularly games on console systems which are more popular in North America, Europe and Japan but which we have only recently begun offering, and other leisure activities;|
|●||evolving PC, smartphone and tablet technologies;|
|●||changes in game player demographics and public tastes and preferences;|
|●||any government restrictions on the playing of online games; and|
|●||the availability and popularity of alternative gameplay models such as cloud-gaming services.|
There is no assurance that the online game industry will continue to grow in future periods at any particular rate or at all.
We may not be successful in making our mobile games profitable, and our profits from mobile games may be relatively lower than the profits we have enjoyed historically for PC games.
In our games and related value-added services segment, which include both the operation of online games as well as other related or ancillary services to the games, net revenues from the operation of online games accounted for 93.0%, 92.6% and 92.5% for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively. We generate a large portion of revenue in our operation of online games from our mobile games. Our profits from our mobile games, even if the games are successful, are generally lower than our profits generated from PC games, because, in order to gain access to our games on mobile application stores, which are the primary distribution channel for our mobile games, we must enter into revenue-sharing arrangements that result in lower profit margins compared with those of our PC games. In addition, our mobile games tend to cover a wider variety of genres, some of which have historically had relatively lower profitability than that of our PC games. Furthermore, we are releasing more of our mobile games overseas, which may involve additional marketing and distribution costs and further impact the profitability of our mobile games.
We have devoted and expect to continue to devote a significant amount of resources to the development of our mobile games, but the relatively lower profit margins and other uncertainties make it difficult to predict whether we will continue to succeed in making our mobile game operations profitable. If we do not succeed in doing so, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.
A significant portion of our revenue from games and related value-added services is generated from the sale of virtual items within the games, and if we do not develop desirable virtual items and properly price them or if this revenue model ceases to be successful, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
All of our mobile games and many of our PC games currently utilize the item-based revenue model. Under this revenue model, our game players are able to play the games for free, but are charged for the purchase of virtual items in the games. We believe that this attracts a wider audience of players and increases the number of potential paying users. However, the success of this business model largely depends on whether we can attract game players to play our games and whether we can successfully encourage more players to purchase virtual items. Game players will only pay for virtual items if they are perceived to provide value and enhance their playing experience, and we must closely monitor and analyze in-game consumption patterns and player preferences to understand what items will be appealing and the appropriate price for them. Moreover, we must offer sufficient in-game purchasing opportunities to make our games profitable, while ensuring that the games are fun to play including for players who purchase no virtual items. We might fail to accurately identify and introduce new and popular virtual items or price them properly or may not be able to market our virtual items effectively. In addition, the item-based revenue model may not continue to be commercially successful and in the future, we may need to change our revenue model to a time-based or other revenue model. Any change in revenue model could result in disruption of our game operations and a decrease in the number of our game players and thereby materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Providing a high level of customer service for our players is crucial to maintaining and growing the popularity of our online games, and any failure to do so could harm our reputation and our business.
We devote significant resources to provide high quality customer services to our game players 24 hours a day, seven days a week, through telephone and online support. We also maintain a team of highly trained “Game Masters” which supervise the activities within our games to provide assistance to players as needed and stop any cheating or unfair behavior to ensure the game has an atmosphere of fun and fair play. These activities are crucial to retaining our existing game players and attracting new players who expect a high-quality playing experience from our online games. In addition, our license agreements with third-party developers may also require us to provide specified minimum levels of customer support, and any breach of such obligations could result in the developer terminating our license agreement with them and other damages.
If we underestimate the popularity of certain games or an unexpected event occurs with respect to the operation of a game, we might receive increased complaints asserting that we were unprepared and did not provide adequate customer service. If we fail to maintain effective player support which meets the expectations of players, it could harm our reputation and the popularity of our online games, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to maintain stable relationships with our existing game licensors and co-developers, and we may experience difficulties in the operation of the online games licensed from them.
Several mobile and PC games we offer are licensed from third-party developers, which accounted for 9.1%, 9.5% and 9.5% of our total net revenues in 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively. If we are unable to maintain stable relationships with our existing game licensors, or if any of our licensors establishes similar or more favorable relationships with our competitors in violation of its contractual arrangements with us or otherwise, we may not be able to ensure the smooth operation of these licensed online games, and our licensors could terminate or fail to renew the license agreements with us, which could affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations. For example, the licenses covering the publication of several titles of Blizzard Entertainment, Inc. (together with its affiliated companies, referred to as “Blizzard” in this annual report) in Chinese mainland expired in accordance with their terms on January 23, 2023.
We have a number of licensing arrangements, including an exclusive agreement with Mojang AB, a subsidiary of Microsoft, pursuant to which Microsoft and Mojang agreed to license the operation of Minecraft in the PRC to us until 2022. In May 2019, we extended the term of the Minecraft license for an additional year to August 2023. The termination of any such licenses could adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations. Moreover, the success of our arrangements with our game licensors depends on the popularity of the games licensed to us by them in the Chinese market, which is affected by, among other things, the frequency and success of updates and expansion packs to those games developed by them over which we have no control. Any failure of such licensors to provide game updates, enhancements and new versions in a timely manner and that are appealing to game players, provide assistance that enables us to effectively promote the games, or otherwise fulfill their obligations under our license agreements could adversely affect the game-playing experience of our game players, damage our reputation, or shorten the life-spans of those games, any of which could result in the loss of game players, acceleration of our amortization of the license fees we have paid for those games, or a decrease in or elimination of our revenues from those games.
In addition, certain events may limit our licensors’ ability to develop or license online games, such as claims by third parties that their online games infringe such third parties’ intellectual property rights or their inability to acquire or maintain licenses to use another party’s intellectual property in their online games. In the case of such events, our licensors may be unable to continue licensing online games to us or to continue participating in any joint venture with us, regardless of the stability of our relationship with them.
We also cannot be certain that these licensed online games will be viewed by the regulatory authorities as complying with content restrictions, will be attractive to users or will be able to compete with games operated by our competitors. We may not be able to fully recover the costs associated with licensing these online games if the games are not popular among users in the PRC, and any difficulties in the operation of these licensed games could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We also offer games that are co-developed such as Harry Potter: Magic Awakened, which we developed with Warner Bros. Games, and Diablo® ImmortalTM, which we developed with Blizzard pursuant to a long-term agreement that is separate from the licenses discussed above and remains in effect. If we are unable to maintain stable relationships with our co-developers, we may not be able to ensure the smooth development and operation of these co-developed online games, and our co-developers may terminate their business relationships with us, which could harm our business, financial conditions and results of operations.
We receive relatively lower profits from the operation of online games that we license from third-party developers, and we are subject to certain financial obligations in connection with such licenses.
Our revenue sharing arrangements for games that we license from third-party developers provide us with relatively less profit than games that we develop in-house. Moreover, to secure the rights to games from such developers, we are required, as licensee of the games, to pay them royalties for the games over the terms of the licenses, to make minimum marketing expenditure commitments, or to provide funds for hardware to operate the games, or a combination of the forgoing. In some cases, we may not be able to recoup our investments in such games. We often must make such commitments and investments without knowing whether the games we are licensing will be successful and generate sufficient revenues to enable us to recoup our costs or for the games to be profitable.
Future alliances may expose us to potential risks, including those associated with the assimilation of new operation technologies and personnel, unforeseen or hidden liabilities, and potential business disputes with our partners, among others.
Strategic alliances with key players in the online game industry and other related industry sectors form part of our strategy to expand our portfolio of online games. In some cases, such alliances may involve our investment into strategic partners, as we have done with a number of game development studios in various countries. However, our ability to grow through future alliances, including through joint ventures and direct investments, will depend on the availability of suitable partners at reasonable terms, our ability to compete effectively to attract these partners, the availability of financing to complete larger joint ventures and investments, and our ability to obtain any required governmental approvals. Further, the benefits of an alliance may take considerable time to develop, and we cannot be certain that any particular alliance will produce its intended benefits.
Future alliances could also expose us to potential risks, including risks associated with the assimilation of new operation technologies and personnel, unforeseen or hidden liabilities, the inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset the costs and expenses of alliances and potential loss of, or harm to, our relationships with employees, customers, licensors and other suppliers as a result of integration of new businesses. Further, we may not be able to maintain a satisfactory relationship with our partners, which could adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations. We have relatively limited experience in identifying, financing or completing strategic alliances compared with some of our competitors. Such transactions and the subsequent integration process would require significant attention from our management. The diversion of our management’s attention and any difficulties encountered with respect to the alliances or in the process of integration could have an adverse effect on our ability to manage our business.
Termination of our material intellectual property licenses could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Certain of our online games rely on intellectual property license agreements which give us the right to use certain names, characters, logos or storylines in connection with online games developed by us. For example, we have a license agreement with Marvel Entertainment to create mobile games based on Marvel characters and storylines and partnered with Warner Bros. Games to co-develop the mobile game Harry Potter: Magic Awakened, which successfully launched in 2021 in Chinese mainland, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. If we were to breach any material term of these license agreements, the licensor could terminate the agreement. If the licensor were to terminate our rights to use any such intellectual property for this reason or any other reason, or if a licensor decides not to renew a license agreement upon the expiration of the license term, the loss of such rights could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, it can be difficult to identify a suitable intellectual property that can be adapted for use in online games and is recognizable to players in China and elsewhere, and we face significant competition for the rights to such intellectual property from other online game companies. Obtaining license rights, and particularly exclusive license rights, to use third-party intellectual property for use in online games can involve significant expense. In addition, we have previously obtained, and intend to continue to seek to obtain, license rights for works from certain intellectual property owners based outside of China, and our ability to utilize their intellectual property in China may be adversely affected by the scrutiny of such arrangements by the relevant Chinese authorities.
Even if we obtain license rights for such intellectual property, we cannot assure you that games that we develop utilizing it will be popular and commercially successful and that we will be able to recoup the amounts we pay for the license rights. Moreover, after the expiration of the terms of our license agreements with the relevant copyright holders, we may not be able to renew the agreements with commercial terms that are favorable to us, if at all. Our inability to renew such agreements could force us to discontinue the related online games and have a significant adverse impact on our online game operations and revenues.
Our new games may attract game players away from our existing games, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our new online games, including mobile games and PC games, may attract game players away from our existing games and shrink the player base of our existing online games, which could in turn make those existing games less attractive to other game players, resulting in decreased revenues from our existing games. Players of our existing games may also spend less money to purchase time or virtual items in our new games than they would have spent if they had continued playing our existing games. In addition, our game players may migrate from our existing games with a higher profit margin to new games with a lower profit margin. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Illegal game servers and acts of cheating by players of online games could harm our business and reputation and materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
Several of our competitors have reported in past years that certain third parties have misappropriated the source codes of their games and set up illegal game servers and let their customers play such games on illegal servers without paying for the game playing time. While we already have in place numerous internal control measures to protect the source codes of our games from being stolen and to address illegal server usage and, to date, our games have not to our knowledge experienced such usage, our preventive measures may not be effective. The misappropriation of our game server installation software and installation of illegal game servers could harm our business and reputation and materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
In addition, acts of cheating by players of online games could lessen the popularity of our online games and adversely affect our reputation and our results of operations. There have been a number of incidents in previous years where users, through a variety of methods, were able to modify the rules of our online games. Although these users did not gain unauthorized access to our systems, they were able to modify the rules of our online games during gameplay in a manner that allowed them to cheat and disadvantage our other online game users, which often has the effect of causing players to stop using the game and shortening the game’s lifecycle. While we have taken a number of steps to deter our users from engaging in cheating when playing our online games, we cannot assure you that we or the third parties from whom we license some of our online games will be successful or timely in taking corrective steps necessary to prevent users from modifying the rules of our online games.
If we suspect a player of installing cheating programs on our online games, or of engaging in other types of unauthorized activities, we may freeze that player’s game account or even ban the player from logging on to our games and other online platforms. Such activities to regulate the behavior of our users are essential to maintaining a fair playing environment for our users. However, our users may dispute our regulatory activities and institute legal proceedings against us for damages or claims. Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected as a result.
Our online games will be less likely to be successful if we cannot adopt and implement innovative and effective marketing strategies to attract attention to our games from game players in our targeted demographic groups.
A relatively large number of mobile and PC games are typically available at any given time in the markets in which we launch and operate our online games, and such games compete for attention from the same game player population that we target. Our ability to successfully promote and monetize our online games will depend on our ability to adopt and effectively implement innovative marketing strategies, and particularly marketing through our 163.com website, game live streaming sites and other online game forums, and our ability to cross-market new games to players of our current online games. We also engage in a wide range of other promotional activities such as hosting game tournaments and a forum that provides an online community for elite game players, key opinion leaders and masters of the online game industry to interact. If we fail to adopt and implement such marketing and cross-marketing strategies, or if the marketing strategies of our competitors are more innovative and effective than ours, our online games will be less likely to be successful and as a result we may not be able to achieve an acceptable level of revenue from those games.
Some of our players make sales and purchases of our game accounts and virtual items through third-party auction websites, which may have a negative effect on our net revenues.
Some of our players make sales and purchases of our game accounts and virtual items through unauthorized third-party auction websites in exchange for real money, which we do not and are unable to track or monitor. We do not generate any net revenues from these transactions. Accordingly, purchases and sales of our game accounts or virtual items on third-party websites could lead to decreased sales by us and also put downward pressure on the prices that we charge players for our virtual items and services, all of which could result in lower revenues generated for us by our games. New players may decide not to play our games as a result of any rule changes we might implement to restrict the players’ ability to trade in game accounts or virtual items, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, such trading activities could run afoul of PRC regulations on virtual currency and subject traders and us to potential liability. See “—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Restrictions on virtual currency may adversely affect our online game revenues.” for additional information.
Risks Related to Our Other Businesses
The changes in Youdao’s business strategies and offerings may make it difficult to evaluate its future prospects.
Our majority-controlled subsidiary Youdao has historically generated a significant portion of its net revenues from after-school tutoring services for academic subjects included in China’s compulsory education system for grades K-9, which we refer to as the Academic AST Business. In order to fully comply with applicable PRC regulatory requirements adopted by the PRC government in the second half of 2021, Youdao disposed of its Academic AST Business. In connection with this disposal, Youdao completed transition to become a leading technology-focused intelligent learning company and has developed a comprehensive suite of product and service offerings. Youdao recently introduced a number of new intelligent learning products, such as Youdao Smart Learning Pad X10 and Youdao Dictionary Pen X5.
The significant changes in Youdao’s business strategies and offerings have not only rendered its historical results no longer indicative of its future performance, but they may also have some or all of the following unintended effects:
|●||some users, customers and business partners may not receive the changes in Youdao’s business strategies and offerings in a positive manner, and relationships with these parties may be jeopardized;|
|●||Youdao’s new products and services may not be accepted by its users as we expect;|
|●||Youdao’s new products and services may not attract users and customers or generate the revenue required to succeed;|
|●||the underlying assumptions and estimates about Youdao’s new businesses and the new markets that it attempts to enter into may prove incorrect, which may cause Youdao’s actual results of operations to fall short of our expectations;|
|●||to the extent Youdao enters into new businesses, its previous operating history may be of limited use for investors to evaluate Youdao’s future performance and prospects;|
|●||the development of new products and services could be costly and time-consuming and requires us to make significant investments in research and product development, develop new technologies, and increase sales and marketing efforts, all of which may not be successful;|
|●||expenses will be incurred in the implementation of the new business strategies, which could be substantial; and|
|●||the changes in organizational structure that will be required to support the changes in Youdao’s business strategies and offerings may lead to dissatisfaction among employees which could make it more difficult for Youdao to retain key employees.|
If we are unable to successfully address these risks and uncertainties, Youdao’s and hence our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Our Youdao business’s compliance with the Opinions on Further Alleviating the Burden of Homework and After-School Tutoring for Students in Compulsory Education and the implementation measures issued by the relevant PRC government authorities has materially and adversely affected and may continue to affect Youdao’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
The PRC private education industry, especially the after-school tutoring sector, has experienced intense scrutiny and has been subject to significant regulatory changes recently that had materially and adversely impacted businesses in such industry. In particular, the Opinions on Further Alleviating the Burden of Homework and After-School Tutoring for Students in Compulsory Education jointly promulgated by the General Office of State Council and the General Office of Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on July 24, 2021, or the Alleviating Burden Opinion, sets out a series of operating requirements on after-school tutoring institutions. Youdao’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects have been and may continue to be materially and adversely affected by the actions we have taken to date and may be required to take in the future in compliance with the Alleviating Burden Opinion and its implementation measures. We are closely monitoring the evolving regulatory environment and are making efforts to seek guidance from and cooperate with the government authorities to comply with the Alleviating Burden Opinion and its implementation measures. Youdao disposed of its Academic AST Business and as of the date of the filing of this annual report, Youdao no longer offers any AST courses on academic subjects for students receiving compulsory education and for high-school students. With respect to Youdao’s non-academic after school tutoring services, the Alleviating Burden Opinion requires local authorities to identify corresponding competent authorities for different tutoring categories of non-academic after school tutoring services (e.g., physical education, arts, science and etc.) and set forth standards by categories to approve institutions for offering each category of non-academic after school tutoring service. As of the date of the filing of this annual report, some local government authorities have issued rules or recently released draft rules for public comments which require institutions providing non-academic after school tutoring services to obtain private school operating permits and to comply with relevant implementation measures. Since these local rules are recently promulgated, there are substantial uncertainties as to their interpretation, application and enforcement. Youdao follows internal guidelines to make necessary registrations and filings, except as would not have a material adverse effect on our business, and will use its commercially reasonable efforts to obtain, maintain and renew necessary licenses and permits on a timely basis. However, we cannot assure you that Youdao may be able to obtain and maintain all requisite licenses, permits, approvals and filings or pass all requisite assessments in a timely manner or at all.
In addition, certain aspects of our Youdao business may be deemed to not be in full compliance with relevant laws and regulations regarding after-school tutoring services. We have been making and will continue to make efforts to comply with such regulations as well as requirements from the relevant government authorities during such inspections. We cannot assure you, however, that we will be able to comply with such regulatory requirements in a timely manner, or at all. It is also uncertain whether and how the PRC government would promulgate additional laws, regulations and guidance regarding the private education industry, and there is no assurance that we can comply with any such newly promulgated laws, regulations and guidance in a timely manner, or at all. Moreover, Youdao’s business may be required to apply for and obtain additional licenses, permits or recordation or expand the scope of the licenses already obtained, given the significant uncertainties of the interpretation and implementation of certain regulatory requirements applicable to online education businesses.
The success and future growth of our Youdao business will be affected by the user acceptance and market trend of integration of technology and learning.
Youdao’s business model features integrating technology closely with learning to provide a more efficient and engaging learning experience. Intelligent learning remains a relatively new concept in China, and there are limited proven methods to project user demand or preference or available industry standards. Even with the proliferation of internet and mobile devices in China, we believe that some of Youdao’s target students may still be inclined to choose traditional face-to-face learning approaches over virtual learning as they find the former more intimate and reliable. We cannot assure you that Youdao’s products and services will continue to be attractive to our users in the future. If Youdao’s offering of learning services and smart devices becomes less appealing to our users, the financial condition and results of operations of our Youdao business could be materially and adversely affected.
If we fail to develop and apply our technologies to support and expand Youdao’s product and service offerings or if we fail to timely respond to the rapid changes in industry trends and user preferences, our Youdao business may be materially and adversely affected.
Over the years, we have developed a number of core technologies to support Youdao’s comprehensive suite of products and services. We also rely on technologies to build and maintain Youdao’s information technology infrastructure. The intelligent learning industry is subject to rapid technological changes and innovations and is affected by unpredictable product lifecycles and user preferences. Youdao’s technologies may become obsolete or insufficient, and we may have difficulties in following and adapting to technological changes in the intelligent learning industry in a timely and cost-effective manner. New technologies and solutions developed and introduced by Youdao’s competitors could render its offerings less attractive or obsolete thus materially affecting Youdao’s business and prospects. In addition, our substantial investments in Youdao’s technologies may not produce expected results. If Youdao fails to continue to develop, innovate and utilize its technologies to support and expand its product and service offerings or if our competitors develop or apply more advanced technologies, the financial condition and results of operations of our Youdao business could be materially and adversely affected.
Our intelligent learning, music streaming, e-commerce, advertising and other innovative businesses are subject to a broad range of laws and regulations. Any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to these businesses or any failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our intelligent learning, music streaming, e-commerce, advertising and other innovative businesses are subject to a broad range of laws and regulations, and future laws and regulations may impose additional requirements and other obligations.
For example, our online music business and services, which we conduct through our majority-controlled subsidiary Cloud Music, must comply with laws, regulations, policies and guidelines promulgated by PRC government authorities related to music streaming, live streaming and online entertainment industries. In addition, Cloud Music and its subsidiaries are required to obtain various government approvals, licenses and permits or make various registrations and filings to provide internet information services, internet culture services, internet publication services, online audio-visual products and other related value-added telecommunications services, including the requirement to hold AVSP or complete the registration in the national network audio-visual platform information registration management system. For more information, see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Government Regulations—Regulations on Internet Live Streaming Services.” Cloud Music and its subsidiaries have submitted an application to register with the registration management system, which is currently under review, and we cannot assure you that such registration will be approved or that Cloud Music will no longer be required to hold an AVSP if and when such registration is completed.
Moreover, our e-commerce business is subject to numerous PRC laws and regulations that regulate retailers generally or govern online retailers specifically. See below “—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We are subject to consumer protection laws that could require us to modify our current business practices and incur increased costs.” We may also be required to obtain licenses and permits from different regulatory authorities in order to sell certain categories of products on our e-commerce platform. Additionally, the online activities of all of these businesses are subject to PRC regulations governing foreign ownership of companies in the internet industry and the licensing requirements pertaining to them, as well as internet access and the distribution of online content including music, music videos, online educational content and other forms of content over the internet. See below “—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure” and “—Risks Related to Doing Business in China.”
As these industries are evolving rapidly in China, the interpretation and application of the existing PRC laws and possible new laws, regulations or policies have created substantial uncertainties regarding our businesses. We cannot assure you that we have obtained all the approvals, licenses or permits required for our businesses or will be able to maintain our existing approvals, licenses or permits. If the PRC governmental authorities determine that we are not in compliance with all the requirements under applicable laws and regulations, we may be required to obtain additional licenses or permits or be subject to fines and/or other sanctions. There is no guarantee that we would be able to obtain such licenses or permits or meet all the supervision requirements in a timely manner, or at all. Failure to maintain or regain compliance may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, including being subject to liabilities, penalties, impediments in development of such business models and disruptions to its operations.
Our controlling interest in Youdao and/or Cloud Music may be diluted if Youdao and/or Cloud Music raise additional capital with the issuance and sale of additional equity in the future.
Youdao, our majority-controlled subsidiary listed on the New York Stock Exchange, and/or Cloud Music, our majority-controlled subsidiary listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, may need additional capital in the future to fund their continued operations and support their business growth. As Youdao and/or Cloud Music will continue to invest heavily in improving technologies, expanding their marketing efforts, hiring qualified personnel and offering additional products, services and contents, Youdao and/or Cloud Music may not generate sufficient revenue to offset such expenses. In the future, should Youdao and/or Cloud Music require additional liquidity and capital resources to fund their business and operations, Youdao and/or Cloud Music may need to obtain additional financing, including issuing and selling additional equity or equity-linked securities, or issuing additional equity awards to incentivize their employees, which would dilute our interests in Youdao and/or Cloud Music.
Youdao, our majority-controlled subsidiary, relies on our financial support.
Since its formation, Youdao has received various financial support from the NetEase group, among others, currently including RMB878.0 million outstanding interest-bearing short-term loans as of December 31, 2022 and a US$300.0 million revolving loan facility. If Youdao’s management cannot implement an effective business plan in light of the changing regulatory environment to generate operating cash flows and continue to be able to obtain other sources of financing as necessary for Youdao’s future development, it will continue to rely on the financial support from the NetEase group for its continuing operations.
We have devoted, and will continue to devote substantial efforts to monetizing our user base in Cloud Music’s music streaming business. If we fail to effectively execute such monetization strategies, Cloud Music’s business may be materially and adversely affected which may adversely affect our consolidated results of operations.
Our music streaming business is operated by our majority-controlled subsidiary Cloud Music, and we have devoted substantial efforts to monetizing its user base by increasing the number of paying users and cultivating users’ willingness to pay for music. Cloud Music monetize its music streaming platform primarily through the sales of membership subscriptions for online music services and sales of virtual items for social entertainment services. At a strategic level, we plan to continue to optimize our existing monetization strategies and explore new monetization opportunities. It is crucial to balance, on the one hand, creating sufficient monetization opportunities, which enhances the revenues of our platform, and, on the other hand, maintaining an enjoyable platform, which helps to maintain a sizable user base, high user engagement and associated network effect. However, if these efforts fail to achieve our anticipated results, we may not be able to increase or even maintain Cloud Music’s revenue growth.
In order to increase the number of our paying users and cultivate our users’ willingness to pay for music content and social entertainment services, we will need to address a number of challenges, including but not limited to providing consistently high-quality and user-friendly experience, continuing to curate a catalogue of engaging content and continuing to introduce new, appealing products, services and content that users are willing to pay for. If we fail to address any of these challenges, especially if we fail to offer high-quality music content and superior user experience to meet user preferences and demands, Cloud Music may not be successful in increasing the number of paying users and cultivating users’ willingness to pay for music content and social entertainment services, which could have a material adverse impact on Cloud Music’s business, and negatively impact our consolidated results of operations.
If we fail to anticipate user preferences to provide online music streaming content catering to user demands, or maintain the activeness of our services to users and business partners, Cloud Music’s business may be materially and adversely affected which may adversely affect our consolidated results of operations.
Constantly changing consumer preferences have affected and will continue to affect the music industry, in particular online music platforms. Given that our music streaming business operates in a rapidly evolving industry, we need to anticipate user preferences and industry changes and respond to such changes in a timely and effective manner. We must stay abreast of emerging consumer preferences and anticipate product trends that will appeal to existing and potential users. If Cloud Music fails to cater to the needs and preferences of Cloud Music’s users and control our costs in doing so or fail to deliver compelling user experience, Cloud Music may suffer from reduced user traffic, and Cloud Music’s business may be materially and adversely affected which may adversely affect our consolidated results of operations.
Maintaining and enhancing the “NetEase Cloud Music” brand is critical to expanding Cloud Music’s base of users, advertisers, content contributors and other partners. Maintaining and enhancing this brand will depend largely on our ability to continue to develop and provide an innovative and high-quality experience for our listeners and attract advertisers, content owners and other parties to work with us, which we may not do successfully. Our brand may be impaired by a number of other factors, including service outages, data privacy and security issues, listener perception of ad load and exploitation of our trademarks by others without permission. In addition, if our partners fail to maintain high standards for products that integrate our service, the strength of our brand could be adversely affected.
Our music streaming business partners include music labels, advertisers, talent agencies and others. We help our advertisers reach and engage with their target users through the services and solutions we offer through Cloud Music. Our ability to grow our revenues to a certain extent depends on our ability to retain and enhance our relationships with our existing business partners and attract new ones. Our success also depends on our ability to provide effective services and solutions that meet the expectations of our business partners. For instance, if we fail to develop new advertisement formats or effective marketing solutions that are appealing to our business partners, they may turn to our competitors for alternative services. Our business also relies on content, services and technologies provided by some business partners. If we fail to retain and enhance our business relationships with these business partners, or if these business partners choose to terminate or change the terms of our cooperation arrangements for strategic, financial or other reasons, we may suffer content loss, service interruptions or reduced revenues, which may have a material and adverse effect on Cloud Music’s business and may adversely affect our consolidated results of operations.
We depend on third-party licenses for a significant portion of our music content, and any adverse changes to, or loss of, our relationships with these music content providers may materially and adversely affect Cloud Music’s business which may adversely affect our consolidated results of operations.
Significant portions of our music offerings are licensed from music content partners, including music publishers and labels in China and internationally with whom we have entered into licensing agreements. There is no assurance that the licenses currently available to us will continue to be available in the future at royalty rates and on terms that are favorable, commercially reasonable or at all.
There is also no guarantee that we have all of the licenses for the music content available on our platform, as we need to obtain licenses from many copyright owners, some of whom are unknown, and there are complex legal issues such as open questions of law as to when and whether particular licenses are needed. Additionally, there is a risk that copyright owners, talent agencies, or legislative or regulatory bodies may require or attempt to require us to enter into additional license agreements with, and pay royalties to, newly defined groups of copyright owners, some of which may be difficult or impossible to identify.
Furthermore, there is no guarantee that the licenses or arrangements we have now will be renewed in the future. If we are unable to secure and maintain the licenses or similar arrangements that we desire, the size and quality of our music catalog offered by our music streaming platform and the financial condition and results of operations of this business may be materially and adversely affected, which in turn could negatively impact the attractiveness of our brand name and online services in general to our users.
A portion of our revenues is generated from our advertising services, but we may not be able to compete effectively in this market because of its rapidly evolving nature and intense competition, in which case our ability to generate and maintain advertising revenue in the future could be adversely affected.
Although we anticipate that the revenues generated by our online games will continue to constitute the major portion of our future revenues, we believe that we will continue to rely on advertising as a source of revenue for the foreseeable future. The popularity of online advertising in China has been growing quickly in recent years, and many of our current and potential advertisers have gained experience with using the internet as an advertising medium. Our ability to generate and maintain significant advertising revenue will depend on a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:
|●||operations and financial conditions of our advertisers and the general level of advertiser spending;|
|●||the development of a large base of users possessing demographic characteristics attractive to advertisers;|
|●||competition with other major and emerging online advertising platforms;|
|●||the development of software that blocks internet advertisements before they appear on a user’s screen;|
|●||downward pressure on online advertising prices; and|
|●||the effectiveness of our advertising delivery and tracking system.|
Changes in government policy could also restrict or curtail our online advertising services.
Our e-commerce business is subject to challenges and risks, which may have a negative impact on our financial performance.
We established our private label consumer lifestyle brand, Yanxuan, in April 2016. Yanxuan sells a wide range of products, including pet food and supplies, home cleaning products, bedding and other categories of products, which we source from a variety of manufacturers. This business exposes us to challenges and risks that could negatively impact our financial performance. We have incurred significant expenses on a variety of different marketing and brand promotion efforts designed to enhance the recognition of our Yanxuan business and increase sales of our products. However, our brand promotion and marketing activities may not be well received by our customers and may not result in the levels of product sales that we anticipate.
We face intense competition from other e-commerce players, private label manufacturers and retailers. The e-commerce industry in China is subject to rapid market change, the introduction of new business models, and the entry of new and well-funded competitors. If we are unable to compete effectively, our e-commerce business’s financial condition and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected. To effectively compete with our competitors in the e-commerce industry, we are also required to adjust and refine our marketing approaches or to introduce new marketing approaches because the marketing approaches and tools in the consumer products market in China are constantly evolving. If we are unable to design marketing activities that will appeal to the Chinese consumers or market in a cost-effective manner, revenues from our e-commerce business will be adversely affected. In addition, our e-commerce business requires us to manage a large volume of inventory effectively and requires a large amount of working capital. If we fail to manage our inventory effectively, we may be subject to a heightened risk of inventory obsolescence, a decline in inventory values, and significant inventory write-downs or write-offs, which may materially and adversely affect our e-commerce business and financial position.
Moreover, the future growth of our e-commerce business depends on our ability to continue to attract new customers as well as new purchases from existing customers. Constantly changing consumer preferences have affected and will continue to affect the online retail industry. We must stay abreast of emerging consumer preferences and anticipate product trends that will appeal to existing and potential customers. If we are unable to offer products that attract new customers and new purchases from existing customers, our e-commerce business may be materially and adversely affected.
Furthermore, our profit margin from the e-commerce business, even if the business is successful, is likely to be relatively lower than our profit margin from certain of our other businesses, such as our online game business and advertising business. If we cannot successfully address challenges specific to the e-commerce business and compete effectively, we may not be able to recover the costs of our investments, and our future results of operations and growth prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
Risks Related to Our Operations Overall
We may be unable to compete successfully against new entrants and established industry competitors.
The Chinese market for internet content and services is intensely competitive and rapidly changing. Our competition primarily comes from global online game developers and operators, such as Tencent, established online and offline education service providers and manufacturers of smart hardware or devices in China, as well as leading digital media and entertainment providers. Some of our current and potential competitors are much larger than we are, and currently offer, and could further develop or acquire, content and services that compete with us. We mainly compete to:
|●||attract, engage and retain users based on the design, quality, popularity and efficacy of our content offerings, the overall user experience of our products and services, as well as the effectiveness of our marketing activities;|
|●||attract and retain motivated and capable talent, including engineers, game designers, product developers and creative professionals to build compelling content, tools and functions; and|
|●||win collaboration relationships with game studios and content owners based on our level of expertise in systematically developing original games, delivering a compelling user experience through operational know-how and customizing our established game titles for rapid expansion into overseas markets.|
Our ability to compete depends on a number of other factors as well, some of which may be beyond our control, including alliances, acquisitions or consolidations within our industries that may result in stronger competitors, and changes in the regulatory environment in the markets we operate. Existing and new competitors may leverage their established platforms or market positions, or introduce innovative business models, to launch highly-engaging content, products or services that may attract a large user base and achieve rapid growth, which may materially and adversely affect our business expansion and results of operations. We increasingly face competition from domestic and international players operating in our markets. Because many of our existing competitors as well as a number of potential competitors have longer operating histories in the internet market, greater name and brand recognition, better connections with the Chinese government, larger customer bases and databases and significantly greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we have, we cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully against our current or future competitors or that competition will not have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we fail to keep up with rapid changes in technologies and user behavior, our future success may be adversely affected.
Our future success will depend on our ability to respond to rapidly changing technologies, adapt our products and services to evolving industry standards and improve the performance and reliability of our products and services. Our failure to adapt to such changes could harm our business. In addition, changes in user behavior resulting from technological developments may also adversely affect us. For example, the number of people accessing the internet through mobile devices, including mobile phones, tablets and other hand-held devices, has increased in recent years, and we expect this trend to continue while 5G and more advanced mobile communications technologies are broadly implemented. If we fail to develop products and technologies that are compatible with all mobile devices, or if the products and services we develop are not widely accepted and used by users of various mobile devices, we may not be able to penetrate the mobile markets. In addition, the widespread adoption of new internet, networking or telecommunications technologies or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures to modify or integrate our products, services or infrastructure. If we fail to keep up with rapid technological changes to remain competitive, our future success may be adversely affected.
We cannot guarantee that our efforts to innovate and explore new areas of operations would be successful or bring positive financial impact to us.
In addition to our existing businesses, we continue to invest significant resources in innovation and exploring new products, services and technologies to cater to the rapidly changing customer demands and trends in the internet industry. However, the success of new products and services depends on a number of factors including the quality of our products or services, the acceptance by the targeted customers and our assessment of market demands and trends.
Furthermore, our competitors are constantly developing innovations, on both mobile devices and personal computers, to enhance users’ online experience in areas that we currently operate or areas that we wish to expand our operations into. As a result, our efforts to continually innovate and explore new growth strategies and introduce new products and services to attract more customers to our services, may not be successful, and we cannot guarantee that our innovation efforts could bring positive financial impact to us.
Our gross profit margin and profitability may be affected by changes in our mix of revenues.
Our gross profit may fluctuate from period to period due to a shifting mix of services and products we sell due to changes in the relative demand for them in the marketplace. Shifts in the mix of our revenue contributed by our different business lines (or by shifts in the sales of individual services or products within such businesses) can impact our gross profit because they generally produce a different level of gross margin. For example, in general our Youdao, Cloud Music and innovative businesses and others segments have had lower gross profit margins compared to our games and related value-added services segment. These individual gross margins in turn can be impacted in any given period by factors such as competition, the implementation of new regulatory requirements and other factors. If the mix of services and products sold shifts from higher margin business lines to lower margin lines as a result of differing growth rates among such lines (or to lower margin services and products within business lines), our overall gross profit margin and profitability may be adversely affected.
We are exposed to credit risk on our accounts receivable, which may be heightened during periods of uncertain economic conditions.
Our outstanding accounts receivable are not covered by collateral or credit insurance. While we have procedures to monitor and limit exposure to credit risk on our accounts receivable, which risk is heightened during periods of uncertain economic conditions, there can be no assurance such procedures will effectively limit our credit risk and enable us to avoid losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.
A prolonged slowdown in the PRC or global economy may materially and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, prospects and future expansion plans.
We derive a substantial portion of our revenue from China. As a result, our revenue and net income are impacted to a significant extent by economic conditions in China and globally, as well as economic conditions specific to online and mobile internet usage and advertising. The global economy, markets and levels of consumer spending are influenced by many factors beyond our control, including consumer perception of current and future economic conditions, political uncertainty, levels of employment, real disposable income, interest rates, taxation and currency exchange rates. In recent years, the rate of economic growth in the PRC has slowed down in general, with the Chinese authorities having announced a target economic growth rate in 2023 of about 5%, which is one of the lowest targets in decades. Any continuing or worsening slowdown could significantly reduce domestic commerce in China, including through the internet generally and within our business. In addition, any future escalation of the ongoing trade war between the United States and China, the future impact of COVID-19, the Russia-Ukraine conflict, the recent issues in the banking industry or other factors, may negatively impact the growth in both the Chinese economy and the global economy as a whole. There have also been concerns on the relationship between China and other countries, including surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially lead to foreign investors closing down their businesses or withdrawing their investments in China, and thus exiting the China market, and other economic effects. An economic downturn, whether actual or perceived, a further decrease in economic growth rates or an otherwise uncertain economic outlook in China or any other market in which we may operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are currently operating in a period of economic uncertainty and capital markets disruption, which has been significantly impacted by rising inflation and geopolitical instability, including the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
U.S. and global markets are experiencing volatility and disruption resulting from increasing inflation and the escalation of geopolitical tensions in connection with the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine. The economic dislocation caused by COVID-19, fiscal and monetary stimulus programs implemented by many governments in response to COVID-19, sudden increases in consumer demand following the relaxation in certain countries of various government restrictions designed to reduce the spread of COVID-19, and other related factors, have contributed to a significant increase in inflation globally. In addition, Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine commencing in February 2022 has led to further market disruptions, including significant volatility in commodity prices, credit and capital markets, as well as supply chain interruptions, which has further fueled inflation. Although we have not identified any material impact to our business due to inflation as of the date of the filing of this annual report, because costs rise faster than revenues during the early phases of inflation, we may find that, among other effects, we need to give higher than normal raises to employees, start new employees at higher wage, and/or pay higher amounts for employee benefits.
As the duration, impact and interrelationship of the above-mentioned factors are difficult to predict, any of them could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Trade sanctions imposed by various jurisdictions may expose us to potential compliance risks.
Sanctions laws prohibit us from doing business in or with certain countries or governments, and with certain persons or entities that have been sanctioned by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Asset Controls, or OFAC, the U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security, or BIS, His Majesty’s Treasury of the United Kingdom, the European Union and its Member States, and other governments and international or regional organizations, such as the United Nations Security Council. Such trade sanctions programs change frequently or can evolve to regulate new areas of conduct, including with respect to the countries that are already subject to trade sanctions. It is not, however, possible to predict with a reasonable degree of certainty how the international regulatory environment concerning economic and trade sanctions may develop.
As a Cayman Islands company with the substantial majority of our subsidiaries and operations outside of the U.S., UK and EU, we are generally not required to comply with U.S., UK, and EU trade sanctions to the same extent as U.S., UK or EU entities. However, for companies like us, our U.S., UK, and EU subsidiaries, employees who are U.S. persons or UK or EU nationals, activities in the U.S., UK, or EU, activities involving U.S.-origin goods, technology or services, and certain conduct or dealings, among other activities, are subject to applicable sanctions requirements. Moreover, although our websites are open and available worldwide, we do not actively solicit business in countries that are subject to comprehensive trade sanctions or from persons who are subject to sanctions. Some trade sanctions specifically target China and China-based companies which may affect our business (see “—Export controls and economic and trade sanctions explicitly or implicitly involving China could negatively affect our business operations and subject us to regulatory investigations, fines, penalties or other actions and reputational harm, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.” below). We expect that our exposure to trade sanctions will increase as we continue to expand our international operations.
We have implemented internal controls to manage and monitor our compliance with applicable trade sanctions, but there can be no assurance that we are able to prevent or detect inadvertent business dealings with sanctioned parties and we have limited control over the activities of our international business partners and non-controlled investees. We also cannot predict with certainty how relevant authorities will interpret or implement their sanction laws or regulations. While we do not believe that we are in violation of any applicable trade sanctions laws or that any of our activities are currently sanctionable under applicable laws, some of our activities or the activities of our affiliates could expose us to penalties under these laws. Any alleged sanctions violations may adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, as we expand globally, we may incur significant costs related to current, new or changing sanctions, embargoes, export controls programs or other restrictions and disclosure requirements, as well as negative publicity, investigations, fines, fees or settlements, which may be difficult to predict.
Export controls and economic and trade sanctions explicitly or implicitly involving China could negatively affect our business operations and subject us to regulatory investigations, fines, penalties or other actions and reputational harm, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A number of countries and jurisdictions, including China, the United States and the EU, have adopted various trade sanctions regimes. In particular, the U.S. government and other governments have threatened and/or imposed export controls, as well as trade sanctions on China, and a number of China-based companies, including ZTE Corporation, Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., Tencent Holdings Limited, certain of their respective affiliates, and other PRC-based technology companies. Furthermore, on October 7, 2022, the U.S. Commerce Department announced a sweeping set of export control rules aimed at restricting China’s ability to obtain advanced semiconductor chips, develop and maintain supercomputers, and manufacture advanced semiconductor chips. As a result, both U.S. and non-U.S. parties cannot export, re-export, or transfer (in-country) certain U.S.-origin advanced computing semiconductor chips, computer commodities that contain such chips, and certain semiconductor manufacturing items to China with export licensing, and the export to China of non-U.S. origin items in these categories from other countries may be subject to U.S. export licensing requirements if they are the product of controlled U.S. software and technology or of equipment or facilities that are themselves the product of controlled software or technology, or incorporate controlled U.S.-origin items. In January 2023, Japan and the Netherlands, countries that are homes to some of the world’s most advanced semiconductor equipment manufacturers, also announced that they have agreed to restrict exports of advanced chip-manufacturing equipment to China. These rules may prevent us from acquiring advanced semiconductors which may impede our ability to effectively develop new technologies and services, including in the areas which require significant computer processing power. The BIS is also continuing to finalize additional new export controls with respect to a wide range of “emerging and foundational” technologies, which may include certain software technologies that are relevant to our business and/or our future growth.
It is possible that the United States or other jurisdictions may impose further trade sanctions, and other heightened regulatory requirements on China and China-based companies in a wide range of areas. These regulatory requirements could (1) prohibit or restrict firms from selling, exporting, re-exporting or transferring certain technology, components, software and other items to China-based companies, (2) prohibit or restrict persons from entering into transactions with China-based companies, (3) prohibit or restrict China-based companies from accessing data, providing services in or operating in the sanctioning jurisdiction, or (4) prohibit purchases and sale of securities of Chinese firms, among other prohibitions or restrictions. In addition, Chinese companies, if targeted under U.S. economic sanctions, may lose access to the U.S. markets and the U.S. financial system, including the ability to use U.S. dollars to conduct transactions, settle payments or to maintain correspondent accounts with U.S. financial institutions. U.S. entities and individuals may not be permitted to do business with sanctioned companies and persons, and international banks and other companies may as a matter of law and/or policy decide not to engage in transactions with such companies. In January 2023, the U.S. House of Representatives formed a new select committee dedicated to competing with China which is authorized to investigate and submit policy recommendations concerning the status of the economic, technological, and security progress of the Chinese Communist Party and its competition with the United States. We cannot predict what recommendations this committee may make from time to time or what new rules and regulations may ultimately be adopted in this regard.
Furthermore, in August 2020, MOFCOM and the Ministry of Science and Technology of the PRC issued a notice which stipulates that certain technologies, including technologies related to personalized information push services based on data analysis, are restricted from export outside the PRC without approval. Some of our technologies could fall within the scope of technologies subject to such export restriction. In addition, according to the PRC Export Control Law which came into effect in December 2020, we, our affiliates and business partners may also be required to obtain licenses, permits and governmental approvals to export certain goods, technologies and services. These and additional regulatory restrictions and requirements that may become effective from time to time may increase our compliance burden and affect our ability and efficiency in expanding to international markets.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected by current or future trade sanctions. Moreover, if any of our expanding portfolio of investee companies, global business partners, joint venture partners or other parties that have collaborative relationships with us were to become subject to trade sanctions, this might result in significant negative publicity, governmental investigations and reputational harm, as well as losses from impairments or write-offs.
We are subject to a variety of laws and other obligations regarding data security and personal information protection in China, and our failure to comply with any of them could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others and harm our public image and reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to laws in China relating to the collection, use, sharing, retention, security and transfer of confidential and private information, such as personal information and other data. These laws apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between our company and our subsidiaries and the VIEs and among our company, our subsidiaries, the VIEs and other parties with which we have commercial relations. These laws are continuing to develop, and the PRC government may adopt other rules and restrictions in the future. Non-compliance could result in penalties or other significant legal liabilities.
According to the Cybersecurity Law of the People’s Republic of China, or Cybersecurity Law, which was promulgated by the National People’s Congress Standing Committee on November 7, 2016, and took effect on June 1, 2017, we, as a network operator, are obligated to provide technical assistance and support to public security and national security authorities in order to protect national security or assist with criminal investigations. In addition, the Cybersecurity Law provides that personal information and important data collected and generated by an operator of critical information infrastructure in the course of its operations in the PRC must be stored in the PRC. As of the date of the filing of this annual report, we have not been recognized as the operator of critical information infrastructure. We have undertaken significant measures in an effort to ensure compliance with the Cybersecurity Law. On September 12, 2022, the CAC issued the Decision on Amending the PRC Cybersecurity Law (Draft for Comments), which further refines and enhances the legal liabilities for violating various existing provisions of the Cybersecurity Law. As of the date of the filing of this annual report, these proposed amendments to the Cybersecurity Law have not been formally adopted by the National People’s Congress Standing Committee.
On November 14, 2021, the CAC issued the Regulations on the Administration of Cyber Data Security (Draft for Comments) (the “Draft Data Security Regulations”) for public comments pursuant to which data processors carrying out certain prescribed activities must, in accordance with the relevant national regulations, apply for a cybersecurity review. On December 28, 2021, the CAC, NDRC, MIIT and other ten PRC regulatory authorities jointly issued the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which became effective from February 15, 2022. The Cybersecurity Review Measures require that critical information infrastructure operator or network platform operator carrying out the prescribed activities shall be subject to cybersecurity review, but there are uncertainties with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the measures.
In anticipation of the strengthened implementation of cybersecurity laws and regulations and the continued expansion of our business, we face potential risks if we are deemed as a “critical information infrastructure operator” or a “network platform operator” that affects or may affect national security under the Cybersecurity Review Measures, and would be required to follow cybersecurity review procedures. During such review, we may be required to suspend providing any existing or new services to our customers and/or experience other disruptions of our operations, and such review could also result in negative publicity with respect to our business and diversion of our managerial and financial resources. Any violation of such cybersecurity laws and regulations by us may result in warnings and fines, and if we refuse to rectify or have caused severe consequences such as endangering data security, we may be further subject to suspension of our non-compliant operations, revocation of relevant approvals or business licenses or other sanctions. As of the date of the filing of this annual report, we have not been involved in any investigations or become subject to a cybersecurity review initiated by the CAC based on the Cybersecurity Review Measures, and we have not received any warning or sanction in such respect or any regulatory objections to our listing status from the CAC.
On June 10, 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Data Security Law which became effective on September 1, 2021. The PRC Data Security Law provides a national data security review system under which data processing activities that affect or may affect national security must be reviewed. Any organizational or individual data processing activities that violate the PRC Data Security Law will bear the corresponding civil, administrative or criminal liabilities depending on the specific circumstances. On August 17, 2021, the State Council promulgated the Regulations on Critical Information Infrastructure Security Protection (“CII Regulations”), which became effective on September 1, 2021. Pursuant to the CII Regulations, regulators supervising specific industries are required to formulate detailed guidance to identify critical information infrastructure in the respective sectors, and a critical information infrastructure operator, must take the responsibility to protect the security of the Critical Information Infrastructure by performing certain prescribed obligations. If we are deemed to be a “critical information infrastructure operator” under the CII Regulations, violation of provisions thereto could result in rectification, confiscation of illegal gains, fines and other legal or administrative sanctions. On December 8, 2022, the MIIT promulgated the Measures for Data Security Administration in the Industry and Information Technology Field (Trial Implementation), or the Trial Measures, which took effect on January 1, 2023. The Trial Measures impose certain obligations on industrial and information technology field data processors like us in relation to, among other things, data collection, data storage, data classification, data usage, data transmission, cross-border data transfer, data destruction, data security review, emergency plans, etc.
On August 20, 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Personal Information Protection Law, or the PIPL, which came into effect on November 1, 2021. The PIPL stipulates the scope of personal information and the ways of processing personal information, establishes rules for processing personal information and for transferring personal information abroad, and clarifies the individual’s rights and the processor’s obligations in the process of personal information. With respect to the cross-border transfer of personal information outside the territory of PRC, PIPL requires that unless otherwise provided in the related international treaties or agreements concluded or acceded to by PRC, the handler of personal information must meet one of the following conditions: (i) pass the security assessment organized by CAC (on August 31, 2022, the CAC issued the Guidelines for Declaring Data Cross-border Security Assessment (First Edition), which became effective on September 1, 2022, to further clarify the scope of application, declaration methods and processes of data cross-border security assessment), (ii) have been certified by a specialized agency for protection of personal information in accordance with the provisions of the CAC (on November 4, 2022, the CAC promulgated the Announcement on the Implementation of Certification for Personal Information Protection to substantiate the details of such certification); (iii) enter into a contract with the overseas recipient under the standard contract formulated by CAC (on February 24, 2023, the CAC promulgated the Measures for Standard Contracts for Cross-border Transfers of Personal Information, or the Measures, together with a template of such standard contract as an annex to the Measures, which will take effect on June 1, 2023, to specify the circumstances to conclude such standard contract and a template of such standard contract); or (iv) meet other conditions prescribed by laws, administrative regulations or the CAC. On July 7, 2022, the CAC promulgated the Measures for the Security Assessment of Data Cross-border Transfer, which took effect on September 1, 2022. The Measures for the Security Assessment of Data Cross-border Transfer requires the data processor providing data overseas and falling under specific circumstances to apply for the security assessment of cross-border data transfer by the national cybersecurity authority through its local counterpart.
These newly promulgated laws and regulations reflect the PRC government’s further attempts to strengthen the legal protection for national network security, data security, the security of critical information infrastructure and the security of personal information protection. These laws and regulations are relatively new, and therefore there are substantial uncertainties with respect to their interpretation and implementation. We may need to adjust our business operations and systems to comply with these laws and regulations regarding network security, data security and personal information from time to time.
There has also been an increased focus on ensuring that mobile apps comply with privacy regulations. The Announcement of Launching Special Crackdown Against Illegal Collection and Use of Personal Information by Apps was issued with effect on January 23, 2019 and commenced a coordinated effort among the CAC, MIIT, the Ministry of Public Security and the SAMR to combat the illegal collection and use of personal information by mobile apps throughout the PRC. On October 31, 2019, the MIIT issued the Notice on the Special Rectification of Apps Infringing Users’ Rights and Interests, pursuant to which app providers were required to promptly rectify issues the MIIT designated as infringing app users’ rights such as collecting personal information in violation of PRC regulations and setting obstacles for user account deactivation. On March 12, 2021, CAC, MIIT, MPS and SAMR jointly issued the Rules on the Scope of Necessary Personal Information for Common Types of Mobile Internet Applications, which came into effect on May 1, 2021 and provide guidance regarding the “essential personal information” for different types of mobile apps. Pursuant to such rules, mobile apps may not deny user access to an apps’ basic functional services in the event that the users refuse to provide non-essential personal information. If any of our mobile apps are not in compliance with these regulations, we could be subject to potentially serious penalties, including revocation of our business licenses and permits.
For more information with respect to the above laws and regulations, see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Government Regulations—Regulations on Information Security and Censorship.”
We believe our business operations do not violate any of the above PRC laws and regulations currently in force in any material respect. We have been taking and will continue to take reasonable measures to comply with such laws, regulations, announcement, provisions and inspection requirements; however, as such laws, regulations, announcement and provisions are relatively new, it remains uncertain how these announcements and provisions will be implemented. We cannot assure you we can adapt our operations to it in a timely manner. Evolving interpretations of such laws, regulations, announcements and provisions or any future regulatory changes might impose additional restrictions on us generating and processing personal and behavioral data. We may be subject to additional regulations, laws and policies adopted by the PRC government to apply more stringent social and ethical standards in data privacy resulting from the increased global focus on this area. To the extent that we need to alter our business model or practices to adapt to these announcement and provisions and future regulations, laws and policies, we could incur additional expenses.
Our privacy policies and practices concerning the use and disclosure of data are posted on the NetEase websites and other online and mobile platforms. Any failure by us, our business partners or other parties with whom we do business to comply with its posted privacy policies or with other applicable privacy-related or data protection laws and regulations could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any negative publicity on our website or platform’s safety or privacy protection mechanism and policy could harm our public image and reputation and have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may be subject to a variety of laws and other obligations regarding data protection in jurisdictions outside of China, and our failure to comply with any of them could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others and harm our public image and reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may be subject to similar data protection laws and other obligations in jurisdictions outside of China where we operate, including the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) and other applicable laws in the European Union, the United Kingdom version of the GDPR (combining the GDPR and the United Kingdom’s Data Protection Act 2018), and state and federal privacy laws in the United States, including the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”) as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”), and other new and emerging comprehensive state privacy laws.
The GDPR has applied directly in all European Union member states since May 25, 2018 and applies to the processing carried out by companies with an establishment in the European Economic Area, or EEA, and to the processing carried out by certain other companies which are not established in the EEA but offer goods or services to individuals located in the EEA or monitor the behavior of individuals located in the EEA. The GDPR implements stringent operational requirements for controllers and processors of personal data, including, for example, disclosures on how personal data is to be used, limitations on retention of personal data and implementation of appropriate safeguards for transfer of personal data out of the EEA (such requirements have been further strengthen following the ruling of the Court of Justice of the European Union issued on July 16, 2020, the so-called Schrems II ruling) together with a transfer risk assessment to verify if anything in the law and/or practices of the destination country may impinge on the effectiveness of the safeguards, cyber security requirements, mandatory data breach notification requirements and requirements for controllers to demonstrate that they have relied on a valid legal basis to carry out data processing activities. More recently, the EU has been developing new requirements related to the use of data, including in the Digital Markets Act, the Digital Services Act, and the Data Act, that may add additional rules and restriction on the use of data in our products and services. Engineering efforts to build and maintain capabilities to facilitate compliance with these laws involve substantial expense and the diversion of engineering resources from other projects. We might experience reduced demand for our offerings if we are unable to engineer products that meet our legal duties or help our customers meet their obligations under the GDPR and other data regulations, or if our implementation to comply with the GDPR makes our offerings less attractive. Compliance with these obligations depends in part on how particular regulators interpret and apply them. Failure to comply with European Union laws and other laws relating to the security of personal data may result in significant fines, such as those applicable under the GDPR which can amount up to EUR20,000,000 or up to 4% of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year, if greater, and additional penalties pursuant to European Union member states laws may apply, including criminal liability.
In addition to existing privacy considerations at both the federal and state level in the United States, several states have recently enacted comprehensive privacy laws. For example, California enacted legislation affording consumers expanded privacy protections, including the CCPA, which went into effect on January 1, 2020 and was amended by the CPRA, which went into effect on January 1, 2023. The CPRA gives California residents (including employees and business-to-business contacts) expanded rights to transparency (e.g., detailed information about how personal information is collected, used, and shared), access to, correction of and deletion of their personal information, and a right to opt out of the sale or sharing of their personal information, amongst others. The CPRA also invests enforcement power in a first-of-its-kind in the U.S. enforcement agency, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”), which provides for additional unknowns relating to costs and risks for potential legal liability. The CPPA is expected to finalize implementing regulations that are intended to provide additional details regarding requirements for covered businesses. The CPRA provides for co-enforcement authority for violations between the CPPA and the California Attorney General, as well as a private right of action for certain data breaches that could increase data breach litigation and liability, in light of the potential for statutory damages. Several other states have either passed or are considering additional comprehensive state privacy laws, with Virginia, Colorado, Connecticut, and Utah, already passing such laws. The passing of these states’ laws, and other laws globally, is prompting similar legislative developments in other states in the United States and at the federal level, which could complicate the already existing patchwork of overlapping but different state laws.
Complying with emerging and changing requirements may cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices. Non-compliance could result in penalties or significant legal liability, including for example, penalties calculated as a percentage of global revenue under the GDPR.
We may be subject to breaches of our information technology systems, including security breaches and improper access to or disclosure of our data or user data, which could materially adversely affect our reputation and our results of operations and financial position and expose us to liability claims.
Any compromise of the security of our information technology systems could materially adversely affect the operations of NetEase’s websites and other online and mobile platforms, and result in improper disclosure of personal information and other data. We transmit and store over our systems confidential and private information of our users, such as personal information, including names, user IDs and passwords, and payment or transaction related information. For example, we rely on our information technology systems to record and monitor the purchase and consumption of virtual items by our game players, which constitute a significant portion of the revenue generated from our online games. In addition, in relation to our e-commerce business, almost all of the orders and some of the payments for products we offer are made through our websites and our mobile applications, and some online payments for our products are settled through third-party online payment services. We also share certain personal information about our customers with contracted third-party couriers, such as their names, addresses, phone numbers and transaction records. Moreover, we have accumulated a large volume of data, which covers customer’s browsing and consumption behavior information, product manufacturing and sales information, warehousing and distribution information and customer service information, among others.
Hackers develop and deploy viruses, worms, and other malicious software programs to attack websites or other online and mobile platforms and obtain access to networks and data centers, and there have been a number of well-publicized malicious attacks against a variety of companies worldwide to gain access to non-public information. Hackers may also act in a coordinated manner to launch distributed denial of service attacks, or other coordinated attacks, that may cause service outages or other interruptions. In addition, we distribute our contents to users based on user interest levels indicated by their past viewing behavior. As a result, our content distribution platforms and the results of our user behavior analysis are subject to attempts of improper access or creating false or undesirable user accounts for purposes of spreading misinformation.
Although we believe that we have not experienced any material hacking activity or security breach that allowed unauthorized access to any information stored on our information technology systems or caused any loss or corruption of personal information and other data, software or other computer equipment, we have been subject to denial of service attacks that have caused portions of our network to be inaccessible for limited periods of time. Although these are industry wide problems that affect many companies worldwide, we anticipate that we may be subject to additional attacks in the future because of the high profile of the NetEase group in the Chinese internet industry. We take a number of measures to ensure that our information technology systems are secure, including ensuring that our servers are hosted at physically secure sites and limiting access to server ports. We also use encryption, authentication, net border protection technology, host hardening, security audits, and other technologies to secure the transmission and storage of data. These security measures may be compromised as a result of third-party security breaches, employee faults, malfeasance, faulty password management, or other irregularities. Third parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees or customers into disclosing user names, passwords or other sensitive information, which may in turn be used to access our information technology systems. We expect that we will be required to continue to expend significant resources on system security, data encryption, and other security measures to protect our systems and data, but these security measures cannot provide absolute security.
In the case of a breach of our systems, our data on the purchase and consumption of virtual items by our game players and other personal information of our users such as users of our intelligent education and e-commerce products may be compromised. As a result, our ability to accurately recognize revenues from certain of our online games and the playing experience of our game players could be materially and adversely affected. Moreover, if a computer security breach allows unauthorized access to or release of personal information and other data of our users, our reputation and brand could be materially damaged and use of the NetEase websites and other online and mobile platforms could decrease. We could also be exposed to a risk of loss or litigation and possible liability, which could result in a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The success of our business is dependent on our ability to retain our existing key employees and to add and retain senior officers to our management.
We depend on the services of our existing key employees. Our success will largely depend on our ability to retain these key employees and to attract and retain qualified senior and middle level managers to our management team. Future changes in management could cause material disruptions to our business. We also depend on our ability to attract and retain in the future highly skilled technical, editorial, marketing and customer service personnel, especially experienced online game software developers. In such a circumstance, we currently have no layoff plans, but we may take a regular review and evaluation to the needs for personnel adjustments to adhere to the market law and company strategies. We cannot assure you that we will be able to attract or retain such personnel or that any personnel we hire in the future will successfully integrate into our organization or ultimately contribute positively to our business. In particular, the market for experienced online game software programmers is intensely competitive in China. While we believe we offer compensation packages that are consistent with market practice, we cannot be certain that we will be able to hire and retain sufficient experienced programmers to support our online games business. We may also be unsuccessful in training and retaining less-experienced programmers on a cost-effective basis. The loss of any of our key employees would significantly harm our business. We do not maintain key person life insurance on any of our employees.
Unexpected network interruption caused by system failures may reduce visitor traffic and harm our reputation.
Both the continual accessibility of the NetEase websites and other online and mobile platforms and the performance and reliability of our technical infrastructure are critical to our reputation and the ability of the NetEase websites and other online and mobile platforms to attract and retain users and advertisers. Any system failure or performance inadequacy that causes interruptions in the availability of our services or increases the response time of our services could reduce user satisfaction and traffic, which would reduce the NetEase websites and other online and mobile platforms’ appeal to users and advertisers. As the number of NetEase websites, mobile applications and traffic increase, we cannot assure you that we will be able to scale our systems proportionately. Any system failures and electrical outages could materially and adversely impact our business.
Our operations are vulnerable to natural disasters and other events.
We have limited backup systems and have experienced system failures and electrical outages from time to time in the past, which have disrupted our operations. We have servers and routers in several different countries, with most of our servers and routers are currently located at several different locations in China. Our disaster recovery plan may not fully ensure safety in the event of damage from fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures, break-ins, geopolitical events and similar events. If any of the foregoing occurs, we may experience a system shutdown. We do not carry any business interruption insurance. To improve performance and to prevent disruption of our services, we may have to make substantial investments to deploy additional servers. We carry property insurance with low coverage limits that may not be adequate to compensate us for all losses, particularly with respect to loss of business and reputation that may occur.
Our business could be adversely affected by widespread public health or other outbreaks and epidemics.
COVID-19, a novel strain of coronavirus, has spread worldwide. Many governments around the world have implemented at various points in time a variety of measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19, including travel restrictions and bans, instructions to residents to practice social distancing, quarantine advisories, shelter-in-place orders and required closures of non-essential businesses. The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the global economy, disrupted global supply chains and created significant volatility and disruption of financial markets.
Although the restrictive measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic have gradually been lifted around the world, including in China starting from December 2022, and we expect travel, social and economic activities to gradually normalize and the impact of COVID-19 to be reduced in the regions in which we operate, it is still uncertain whether and how our business could potentially be affected in the future. If there are further waves of the virus or any other adverse public health developments, health measures may be reimplemented and we may need to further limit operations or modify our business practices in a manner that may impact our business. For example, during much of the pandemic, we took measures to reduce the impact of the outbreak, including implementing a remote working program, monitoring our employees’ health and optimizing our technology system to support potential growth in game player traffic. If we or our business partners, including game licensors, suppliers, customers, advertisers and manufacturers, are required to further implement any such measures, we and our business partners might experience lower work efficiency and productivity, which may adversely affect our service quality. The pandemic also caused governments and others to place restrictions on our employees’ and our business partners’ ability to travel for periods of time, which restrictions could be re-introduced in the future.
In addition, the deterioration in economic conditions in connection with the outbreak globally has caused, and may continue to cause, decreases or delays in advertising and marketing service spending (in particular, due to the cancellation and/or delay of live in-person events) and budgets of customers across our platforms. As a result of any of the above developments, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19 and any of its variants and the actions to contain COVID-19 or treat its impact, among others. There have also been other outbreaks of epidemics in China and globally in recent years. Our operations could be disrupted if any future outbreak occurs in China, where a substantial portion of our revenue is derived, or in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hangzhou, where most of our employees are located. Our operations could also be severely disrupted if such health problems or outbreak led to a general slowdown in the Chinese economy or if our suppliers, customers or business partners were affected by such outbreaks or health epidemics.
We face risks relating to our acquisitions, investments and joint ventures.
We have acquired and invested in numerous businesses, particularly with respect to online game development, and have also entered into joint venture arrangements from time to time. At any given time, we may have a number of pending investments and acquisitions that are subject to closing conditions and risks of failure to close. We expect to continue to evaluate and consider a wide array of potential strategic transactions as part of our overall business strategy, including business combinations, acquisitions and dispositions of businesses, technologies, services, products and other assets, as well as strategic investments and joint ventures. At any given time, we may be engaged in discussing or negotiating a range of these types of transactions. These transactions involve significant challenges and risks, including:
|●||difficulties in, and significant and unanticipated additional costs and expenses resulting from, integrating into our business the personnel, operations, products, services, technology, internal controls and financial reporting of the businesses we acquire;|
|●||disruptions to our ongoing business and distractions to our management and employees when engaging or negotiating these transactions, or when integrating the new business we acquire with our existing business, both of which will increase our expenses;|
|●||departure of skilled professionals and experienced management teams of the acquired businesses, in particular senior game designers and programmers;|
|●||lack of influence over the controlling partners or shareholders or the misalignment of interests between us and our partners or other shareholders, for those investments which we may not obtain management and operational control;|
|●||complex regulatory requirements, restrictions and/or scrutiny on our investments and acquisitions in foreign jurisdictions, including those related to national security, anti-monopoly and competition laws, export controls and etc.;|
|●||actual or alleged misconduct, unscrupulous business practices or non-compliance by us and/or any company we acquire or invest in or by its affiliates or current or former employees, whether before, during or after our acquisition or investments;|
|●||difficulties in and costs associated with identifying and selecting appropriate targets and strategic partners;|
|●||loss of potential opportunities to enter into strategic transactions with competitors of our investee companies and strategic partners;|
|●||difficulties in conducting sufficient and effective due diligence on potential targets to identify hidden liabilities, incidences of non-compliance, operating losses, or costs and expenses, which may adversely affect us following our acquisitions or investments or other strategic transactions;|
|●||losses arising from disposal of investments or split-up of businesses; and|
|●||actual or potential impairment charges or write-offs of investments in equity method investees or intangible assets (including intellectual property we acquire), and goodwill recorded in connection with invested businesses, in the event that a decline in fair value below the carrying value of our equity method investments is other-than-temporary, or the carrying amount of a reporting unit to which goodwill is allocated exceeds its fair value. See Item 5.E. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Critical Accounting Estimates—Impairment of long-term investments.”|
These and other risks could lead to negative publicity, increased regulatory scrutiny, litigation, government inquiries, investigations, actions or penalties against us and the companies we invest in or acquire on the ground of non-compliance with regulatory requirements and may force us to incur significant additional expenses and allocate significant management and human resources to rectify or improve these companies’ corporate governance standards, disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls and systems. Due to business or financial underperformance, regulatory scrutiny or compliance reasons, we may need to divest interests in, or terminate business cooperation with, businesses and entities in which we have invested capital and other resources. As a result, we may experience significant difficulties and uncertainties carrying out investments and acquisitions, and our growth strategy, reputation and/or the trading prices of our ADSs, shares and/or other securities may be materially adversely affected.
Our failure to address these risks or other problems encountered in connection with our acquisitions and investments could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of such acquisitions or investments, incur unanticipated liabilities and expenses and harm our business generally. If we use our equity securities to pay for acquisitions, we may dilute the value of your ADSs and shares. If we borrow funds to finance acquisitions, such debt instruments may contain restrictive covenants that could, among other things, restrict us from distributing dividends. Such acquisitions and investments may also lead to significant amortization expenses related to intangible assets, impairment charges or write-offs.
In addition, our strategic investments and acquisitions may adversely affect our financial results, at least in the short term. Acquired businesses that are loss-making may continue to sustain losses and may not become profitable in the near future or at all. The performance of our current and future equity method investees may also adversely affect our net income. There can be no assurance that we will be able to grow our acquired or invested businesses, or realize returns, benefits of synergies and growth opportunities we expect in connection with these investments and acquisitions.
We face risks associated with the expansion of our businesses and operations internationally.
In addition to risks that generally apply to our acquisitions and investments, we face risks associated with expanding into an increasing number of markets where we have limited or no experience, we may be less well-known or have fewer local resources and we may need to localize our business practices, culture and operations. We also face protectionist or national security policies that could, among other things, hinder our ability to execute our business strategies and put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to domestic companies in other jurisdictions. The expansion of our online game business and potentially other businesses outside of China will also expose us to risks and challenges inherent in operating businesses globally, including:
|●||challenges in replicating or adapting our corporate policies and procedures to operating environments different from that of China, including technology and logistics infrastructure;|
|●||challenges in maintaining efficient and consolidated internal systems, including IT infrastructure, and customizing and integrating these systems with the other parts of our business;|
|●||lack of acceptance of our product and service offerings, and challenges of adapting our offerings to appeal to local tastes;|
|●||failure to understand cultural differences, local consumer behaviors and preferences and local business practices;|
|●||protectionist or national security policies that restrict our ability to:|
|●||invest in or acquire companies;|
|●||develop, import or export certain technologies;|
|●||utilize technologies that are deemed by local governmental to pose a threat to their national security; or|
|●||obtain or maintain the necessary licenses and authorizations to operate our businesses;|
|●||the need for increased resources to manage regulatory compliance across our international businesses;|
|●||failure to attract and retain capable talent with international perspectives who can effectively manage and operate local businesses;|
|●||compliance with local laws and regulations, including those relating to online games, e-commerce, digital services and platforms, such as the Digital Services Act and Digital Markets Act which has been adopted by the European Commission, privacy and data security, such as the GDPR, and consumer and labor protection laws, which will increase our compliance costs across different legal systems;|
|●||heightened restrictions and barriers on the transfer of data between different jurisdictions;|
|●||availability, reliability and security of international and cross-border payment systems and logistics infrastructure;|
|●||exchange rate fluctuations; and|
|●||political instability and general economic or political conditions in particular countries or regions, including territorial or trade disputes, war and terrorism.|
Failure to manage these risks and challenges could negatively affect our ability to expand our international and cross-border businesses and operations as well as materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If our server and bandwidth service providers fail to provide these services, our business could be materially curtailed.
We mainly rely on affiliates of China Telecom, China Unicom, and China Mobile to provide us with server and bandwidth service for internet users to access the NetEase websites and other online and mobile platforms. If China Telecom, China Unicom, and China Mobile or their affiliates fail to provide such services or raise prices for their services, we may not be able to find a reliable and cost-effective substitute provider on a timely basis or at all. If this happens, our business could be materially curtailed.
We also rely on cloud servers maintained by third-party cloud service providers particularly for our overseas games. We do not control the operation of these providers or their facilities, and the facilities are vulnerable to damage, interruption or misconduct. Unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our services. Problems with our cloud service providers or the telecommunications network providers with whom they contract could adversely affect the experience of our users. Any change in service levels at our cloud servers or any errors, defects, disruptions, or other performance problems with our platform could harm our business or reputation or we could be required to retain the services of replacement providers, which could increase our operating costs.
We may be held liable for information or content displayed on, retrieved from or linked to the NetEase websites and other NetEase’s online and mobile platforms.
We may face liability for defamation, negligence, copyright, patent or trademark infringement and other claims based on the nature and content of the materials that are published on the NetEase websites and other products and services. We are involved in intellectual property infringement claims or actions from time to time and are occasionally subject to defamation claims or infringement claims related to individual’s publicity rights. We believe that the amounts claimed in these actions, in the aggregate, are not material to our business. However, these amounts may be increased for a variety of reasons as the claims progress, and we and our affiliates could be subject to additional defamation or infringement claims which, singly or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions and results of operations, if successful. Also, we may be subject to administrative actions brought by relevant PRC competent governmental authorities and in the most severe scenario criminal prosecution for alleged infringement, and as a result may be subject to fines and other penalties and be required to discontinue infringing activities. Furthermore, as we expand our operations outside of China, we may be subject to claims brought against us in jurisdictions outside of China.
We also could be subject to copyright, defamation and other claims based upon user-generated content that is accessible on the NetEase websites or other online and mobile platforms such as content and materials posted or uploaded by users on message boards, online communities, voting systems, e-mail, chat rooms or our other online and mobile platforms including NetEase Cloud Music, NetEase CC live streaming platform, our portal and related mobile app, Wangyi Xinwen. By providing technology for hypertext links to third-party websites, we may be held liable for copyright or trademark violations by those third- party sites. Third parties could assert claims against us for losses incurred in reliance on any erroneous information distributed by us. Moreover, users of the NetEase web-based e-mail services could seek damages from us for:
We may incur significant costs in investigating and defending these claims, even if they do not result in liability.
Divestitures of businesses and assets may have a material and adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
We have undertaken, and may undertake in the future, partial or complete divestitures or other disposal transactions in connection with certain of our businesses and assets, particularly ones that are not closely related to our core focus areas or might require excessive resources or financial capital, to help us meet our objectives. These decisions are largely based on our management’s assessment of the business models and likelihood of success of these businesses. However, our judgment could be inaccurate, and we may not achieve the desired strategic and financial benefits from these transactions. Additionally, we have undertaken, and may undertake in the future, partial or complete divestitures or other disposal transactions to comply with evolving legal and regulatory requirements, such as Youdao’s disposal of its Academic AST Business as part of its efforts to comply with new regulatory requirements adopted by the PRC government in the second half of 2021. Our financial results could be adversely affected by the impact from the loss of earnings and corporate overhead contribution/allocation associated with divested businesses. In addition, as our net income/(loss) from discontinued operations are non-recurrent, it may be difficult for investors and analysts to predict our future earnings potential based on our historical financial performance.
Dispositions may also involve continued financial involvement in the divested business, such as through guarantees, indemnities or other financial obligations. Under these arrangements, performance by the divested businesses or other conditions outside of our control could affect our future financial results. We may also be exposed to negative publicity as a result of the potential misconception that the divested business is still part of our consolidated group. On the other hand, we cannot assure you that the divesting business would not pursue opportunities to provide services to our competitors or other opportunities that would conflict with our interests. If any conflicts of interest that may arise between the divesting business and us cannot be resolved in our favor, our business, financial condition, results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Furthermore, reducing or eliminating our ownership interests in these businesses might negatively affect our operations, prospects, or long-term value. We may lose access to resources or know-how that would have been useful in the development of our own business. Our ability to diversify or expand our existing businesses or to move into new areas of business may be reduced, and we may have to modify our business strategy to focus more exclusively on areas of business where we already possess the necessary expertise. We may sell our interests too early, and thus forego gains that we otherwise would have received had we not sold. Selecting businesses to dispose of or spin off, finding buyers for them (or the equity interest in them to be sold) and negotiating prices for what may be relatively illiquid ownership interests with no easily ascertainable fair market value will also require significant attention from our management and may divert resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business operations.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR CORPORATE STRUCTURE
There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations, and rules relating to the agreements that establish the VIE structure for our operations in China, including potential future actions by the PRC government, which could affect the enforceability of our contractual arrangements with the VIEs and, consequently, significantly affect the financial condition and results of operations performance of NetEase. If the PRC government finds such agreements non-compliant with relevant PRC laws, regulations, and rules, or if these laws, regulations, and rules or the interpretation thereof change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in the VIEs.
Due to legal restrictions on foreign investment in Chinese companies providing value-added telecommunications services and holding ICP licenses and other regulated licenses, we operate our primary businesses, including the online games, music streaming, online intelligent learning services and internet content services businesses, in China mainland through contractual arrangements with the VIEs and their nominee shareholders. The contractual arrangements provide us with (i) the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of the VIEs; (ii) economic benefits of these VIEs; and (iii) an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in the VIEs when and to the extent permitted by PRC law or request any existing shareholders of the VIEs to transfer any or part of the equity interests in the relevant VIE to another PRC person or entity designated by us at any time at our discretion. Because of the contractual arrangements, we are the primary beneficiary of the VIEs and their respective subsidiaries and consolidate the results of operations of the VIEs into ours. The VIEs and their respective subsidiaries hold the licenses, approvals and key assets that are essential for the major portion of our business operations.
Although we have been advised by our PRC counsel that these contractual arrangements are valid and binding under existing PRC laws and regulations, these contractual arrangements may not be as effective in providing control over these VIEs as direct ownership. In addition, we have been further advised by our PRC counsel that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current or future PRC laws and regulations. Thus, if the PRC government finds that our contractual arrangements do not comply with the existing or future restrictions on foreign investment, or if the PRC government otherwise finds that we, the VIEs or any of their subsidiaries are in violation of the existing or future PRC laws or regulations or lack the necessary permits or licenses to operate our business, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion in dealing with such violations or failures, including, without limitation:
|●||revoking our business and operating licenses;|
|●||discontinuing or restricting our operations;|
|●||imposing fines or confiscating any of our income that they deem to have been obtained through illegal operations;|
|●||imposing conditions or requirements with which we may not be able to comply;|
|●||requiring us to restructure the relevant ownership structure or operations;|
|●||restricting our financing activities to finance the business and operations of the VIEs; or|
|●||taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business.|
Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, it is unclear what impact the PRC government actions would have on us and on our ability to consolidate the financial results of any of the VIEs in our consolidated financial statements, if the PRC governmental authorities find our legal structure and contractual arrangements to be in violation of PRC laws, rules and regulations. Moreover, new PRC laws, regulations and rules may be introduced to impose additional requirements, posing additional challenges to our corporate structure and contractual arrangements. If any of these penalties results in our inability to direct the activities of VIEs, our failure to receive the economic benefits from the VIEs and/or our inability to claim our contractual control rights over the assets of the VIEs that conduct substantially all of our operations in China, we may not be able to consolidate the VIEs and their respective subsidiaries into our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and cause our ADSs and ordinary shares to significantly decline in value or become worthless. Please also see the below risk factors “— Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to how the 2019 Foreign Investment Law may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.” and “— Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The Chinese government restricts the ability for foreign investors to invest in and operate in certain types of telecommunications and internet businesses.”
Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to how the 2019 Foreign Investment Law may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.
On March 15, 2019, the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress promulgated the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law, which became effective on January 1, 2020. The 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law replaced the trio of previous laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Wholly Foreign-owned Enterprises Law, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Ventures Law, and the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Ventures Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations, and embodies an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. However, uncertainties still exist in relation to interpretation and implementation of the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law, especially in regard to, including, among other things, the nature of VIE structure, the promulgation schedule of both the “negative list” under the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law and specific rules regulating the organization form of foreign-invested enterprises within the five-year transition period. The VIE structure has been adopted by many PRC-based companies, including us, to obtain necessary licenses and permits in the industries that are currently subject to foreign investment restrictions in China. While the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law does not comment on the concept of “de facto control” or contractual arrangements with variable interest entities, it does have a catch-all provision under the definition of “foreign investment,” which includes investments made by foreign investors in China through means stipulated by laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. As such, there remains a leeway for future laws to define contractual arrangements as a form of “foreign investment.” Therefore, there can be no assurance that our consolidation of the VIEs through contractual arrangements will not be deemed as foreign investment in the future.
In the event that any possible future laws, administrative regulations or provisions deem contractual arrangements as a way of foreign investment, or if any of our operations through contractual arrangements is classified in the “restricted” or “prohibited” industry in the future “negative list” under the 2019 Foreign Investment Law, our contractual arrangements may be deemed as invalid and illegal, and we may be required to unwind the VIE contractual arrangements and/or dispose of any affected business. Also, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions mandate further actions to be taken with respect to existing contractual arrangements, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. In addition, the 2019 Foreign Investment Law provides that foreign invested enterprises established according to the existing laws regulating foreign investment may maintain their structure and corporate governance within a five-year transition period, which means that we may be required to adjust the structure and corporate governance of certain of our China mainland subsidiaries after such transition period. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to handle any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.
Our contractual arrangements with the VIEs may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership. If the VIEs or their ultimate shareholders violate our contractual arrangements with them, our business could be disrupted, our reputation may be harmed and we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our rights, which may be time consuming and expensive.
Since PRC laws prohibit or restrict foreign equity ownership in certain types of businesses in China, we have relied and expect to continue to rely on the contractual arrangements with the VIEs and their nominee shareholders to operate our business in China. However, these contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over the VIEs, and the VIEs are owned by shareholders whose interests may differ from ours and those of our shareholders because they own a larger percentage of such companies than of our company. These VIEs or their ultimate shareholders could violate our arrangements with them by, among other things, failing to operate and maintain the NetEase websites and other online and mobile platforms, or their various businesses in an acceptable manner, failing to remit revenue to us on a timely basis or at all or diverting customers or business opportunities from us. If these companies or their ultimate shareholders violate our agreements with them, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend significant resources to enforce those arrangements and rely on legal remedies under the PRC laws. Many PRC laws, rules and regulations are relatively new, and because of the limited volume of published decisions and their non-binding nature, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws, rules and regulations involve substantial uncertainties. These uncertainties may impede our ability to enforce these agreements, or cause us to suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these agreements, and may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial position.
Because our contractual arrangements with certain of the VIEs and their ultimate shareholders do not detail the parties’ rights and obligations, our remedies for a breach of these arrangements are limited.
Our current relationship with the VIEs, including Guangzhou NetEase, Hangzhou Leihuo, Youdao Computer and Hangzhou Yuedu, and their ultimate shareholders is based on a number of contracts, and these affiliated companies are considered the VIEs for accounting purposes. The terms of these agreements are often statements of general intent and do not detail the rights and obligations of the parties. Some of these contracts provide that the parties will enter into further agreements on the details of the services to be provided. Others contain price and payment terms that are subject to monthly adjustment. These provisions may be subject to differing interpretations, particularly on the details of the services to be provided and on price and payment terms. It may be difficult for us to obtain remedies or damages from these VIEs or their ultimate shareholders for breaching our agreements. Because we rely significantly on these companies for our business, the realization of any of these risks may disrupt our operations or cause degradation in the quality and service provided on, or a temporary or permanent shutdown of, the NetEase websites or other online and mobile platforms.
One of our shareholders has significant influence over our company.
Our founder, Chief Executive Officer and director, William Lei Ding, beneficially owned, as of March 31, 2023, approximately 45.0% of our total outstanding shares and is our largest shareholder. Accordingly, Mr. Ding has significant influence in determining the outcome of any corporate transaction or other matter submitted to the shareholders for approval, including mergers, consolidations, the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. He also has significant influence in preventing or causing a change in control. In addition, without the consent of this shareholder, we may be prevented from entering into transactions that could be beneficial to us. The interests of Mr. Ding may differ from the interests of our other shareholders.
A majority of the share capital of certain of the VIEs is held by our major shareholder, who may cause these agreements to be amended in a manner that is adverse to us.
William Lei Ding, directly or indirectly holds the majority interest in certain of the VIEs. As a result, Mr. Ding may be able to cause the agreements related to those companies to be amended in a manner that will be adverse to us, or may be able to cause these agreements not to be renewed, even if their renewal would be beneficial for us. Although we have entered into an agreement that prevents the amendment of these agreements without the approval of the members of our board of directors other than Mr. Ding, we can provide no assurances that these agreements will not be amended in the future to contain terms that might differ from the terms that are currently in place. These differences may be adverse to our interests.
We may not be able to conduct our operations without the services provided by certain of the VIEs.
Our operations are currently dependent upon our commercial relationships with the VIEs, and we derive most of our revenues from these companies. If these companies are unwilling or unable to perform the agreements which we have entered into with them, we may not be able to conduct our operations in the manner in which we currently do. In addition, the VIEs may seek to renew these agreements on terms that are disadvantageous to us. Although we have entered into a series of agreements that provide us with substantial ability to control these companies, we may not succeed in enforcing our rights under them. If we are unable to renew these agreements on favorable terms, or to enter into similar agreements with other parties, our business may not expand, and our operating expenses may increase.
Our corporate structure may restrict our ability to receive dividends from, and transfer funds to, our China mainland subsidiaries and VIEs, which could restrict our ability to act in response to changing market conditions and reallocate funds internally in a timely manner.
NetEase, Inc. is a holding company with no significant assets other than cash on hand and its equity interests in its directly and indirectly-owned subsidiaries, including those set forth in the organizational diagram appearing in Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Our Organizational Structure.” As a result, our company’s primary internal source of funds for our cash and financing requirements is dividend payments and other distributions on equity from our subsidiaries. If these subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us, which in turn would limit our ability to pay dividends on our ordinary shares and service any debt we may incur. PRC tax authorities may also require us to amend our contractual arrangements with the VIEs and their respective shareholders in a manner that would materially and adversely affect the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends and other distributions to us. In addition, Chinese legal restrictions permit payment of dividends only out of net income as determined in accordance with Chinese accounting standards and regulations. Under Chinese law, our China mainland subsidiaries and the VIEs are also required to set aside a portion of their net income each year to fund certain reserve funds, except in cases where a company’s cumulative appropriations have already reached the statutory limit of 50% of that company’s registered capital. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. Also see “—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We may be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes under the Enterprise Income Tax Law, which may subject us to PRC income tax for our global income and result in dividends payable by us to our foreign investors, and gains on the sales of our ordinary shares or ADSs, becoming subject to taxes under PRC tax laws, which may materially reduce the value of your investment.” Any limitation on the ability of our China mainland subsidiaries and the VIEs to transfer funds to us in the form of dividends or other distributions could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our businesses, pay debt or dividends, and otherwise fund and conduct our business.
In addition, any transfer of funds from us to any of our China mainland subsidiaries or the VIEs, either as a shareholder loan or as an increase in registered capital, is subject to certain statutory limit requirements and registration or approval of the relevant PRC governmental authorities, including the relevant administration of foreign exchange and/or the relevant examining and approval authority.
Therefore, it is difficult to change our capital expenditure plans once the relevant funds have been remitted from our company or our subsidiaries outside of China to our China mainland subsidiaries or the VIEs. These limitations on the free flow of funds between our company and our China mainland subsidiaries and the VIEs could restrict our ability to act in response to changing market conditions and reallocate funds internally in a timely manner.
Our arrangements with certain of the VIEs and their respective shareholders may cause a transfer pricing adjustment and may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities.
We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that our contracts with the VIEs and their respective shareholders were not entered into based on arm’s-length negotiations. Although our contractual arrangements are similar to those of other companies conducting similar operations in China, if the PRC tax authorities determine that these contracts were not entered into on an arm’s-length basis, they may adjust our income and expenses for PRC tax purposes in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment which may result in an increase in our taxes. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may also impose late payment interest.
A transfer of shares of the VIEs may trigger tax liability.
If we need to cause the transfer of shareholdings of the VIEs from their current respective shareholders to any other individual, we may be required to pay individual income tax in the PRC on behalf of the transferring shareholder. Such individual income tax would be based on any gain deemed to have been realized by such shareholder on such transfer, and may be calculated based on a tax rate of 20% applied to the transferring shareholder’s interest in net book value of the entity whose shares are being transferred minus the original investment cost. A significant tax obligation arising from any such transfer of shares could materially adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations.
We may lose the ability to use and enjoy assets held by any of the principal VIEs that are important to the operation of our business if such VIE declares bankruptcy or becomes subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.
The principal VIEs hold assets that are material to our business operations, such as our certain intellectual property and core licenses and permits. Although the VIE contracts between our subsidiaries and the VIEs and the shareholders of the VIEs contain terms that prohibit the shareholders of the VIEs from adversely affecting the existence of the VIEs, in the event the shareholders breach this obligation and voluntarily liquidate the VIEs, or if any of the VIEs declare bankruptcy and all or part of its assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, we might be unable to continue some or all of our business operations. Furthermore, if any of the VIEs were to undergo a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, its shareholders or unrelated third-party creditors might claim rights to some or all of such VIE’s assets and their rights could be senior to our rights under the VIE contracts, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business.
The custodians or authorized users of our controlling non-tangible assets, including chops and seals, may fail to fulfill their responsibilities, or misappropriate or misuse these assets.
Under the PRC law, legal documents for corporate transactions, including agreements and contracts are executed using the chop or seal of the signing entity or with the signature of a legal representative whose designation is registered and filed with relevant PRC industry and commerce authorities. In order to secure the use of our chops and seals, we have established internal control procedures and rules for using these chops and seals. In any event that the chops and seals are intended to be used, the responsible personnel will submit the application which will then be verified and approved by authorized employees in accordance with our internal control procedures and rules. In addition, in order to maintain the physical security of our chops, we generally have them stored in secured locations accessible only to authorized employees. Although we monitor such authorized employees, the procedures may not be sufficient to prevent all instances of abuse or negligence. There is a risk that our employees could abuse their authority, for example, by entering into a contract not approved by us or seeking to gain control of one of our subsidiaries or VIEs. If any employee obtains and misuses or misappropriates our chops and seals or other controlling non-tangible assets for whatever reason, we could experience disruption to our normal business operations. We may have to take corporate or legal action, which could involve significant time and resources to resolve and divert management from our operations.
RISKS RELATED TO DOING BUSINESS IN CHINA
The political relationships between China and other countries may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects.
We have launched numerous mobile games in global markets since 2015 and also offer certain other services outside of China. As a result, China’s political relationships with other countries in which our services are available may affect our business operations. For instance, in September 2020, after heightened tensions between China and India over the disputed Himalayan mountain border, the government of India announced the ban of 118 mobile applications of Chinese origin, including several of our products. In addition, in September 2020, former U.S. President Donald Trump issued an executive order blocking TikTok and WeChat from processing transactions for U.S. citizens and from being downloaded in U.S. app stores due to national security concerns. In January 2021, President Trump also issued an executive order prohibiting transactions between U.S. individuals and companies and eight Chinese applications, including AliPay and QQ. In June 2021, U.S. President Joe Biden rescinded both executive orders and directed the U.S. Commerce Department to monitor software applications that could affect U.S. national security and make recommendations. In October 2021, the U.S. Commerce Department submitted an initial set of recommendations on data scrutiny. Although the foregoing executive order or restriction are not directed at our services and the ban in India has not materially impacted our online games services revenue, there can be no assurance that the deterioration of political relationships between China and other foreign jurisdictions will not result in further bans or restrictions on our products.
Our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects may also be materially adversely affected by export controls and economic and trade sanctions that target China and/or China-based business. See “—Export controls and economic and trade sanctions explicitly or implicitly involving China could negatively affect our business operations and subject us to regulatory investigations, fines, penalties or other actions and reputational harm, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.” above. In addition, there can be no assurance that our customers will not alter their perception of us or their preferences as a result of adverse changes to the state of political relationships between China and the relevant foreign jurisdiction. Any tensions and political concerns between China and the relevant foreign jurisdictions may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects.
Changes in government regulation of the telecommunications and internet industries in China may result in uncertainties in interpretation and/or the Chinese government requiring us to obtain additional licenses or other governmental approvals to conduct our business, both of which may restrict our operations.
The telecommunications and internet industry, including ICP services and online games, is highly regulated by the Chinese government. In addition, the telecommunication and internet-related laws and regulations are relatively new and constantly evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. As a result, in certain circumstances, it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations in this area.
The evolving PRC regulatory system for the telecommunications and internet industries may lead to the establishment of new regulatory agencies. For example, in May 2011, the State Council announced the establishment of the CAC, whose primary role is to facilitate the policy-making and legislative development in the telecommunications and internet industries by coordinating with other relevant governmental agencies in connection with online content administration and handling cross-ministry regulatory matters in relation to such industries.
In addition, we are uncertain as to how will the Chinese government reclassify our business, due to our acceptance of fees for internet advertising, online games, e-commerce, and other innovative services as sources of revenues, or as a result of our current corporate structure. Such reclassification could subject us to penalties, fines or significant restrictions on our business. Moreover, NetEase, Inc. may have difficulties enforcing its rights under the agreements with the VIEs if any of these parties breaches any of the agreements with them because NetEase, Inc. does not have approval from appropriate Chinese authorities to provide internet content services, internet advertising services, e-commerce services or other innovative services. Future changes in Chinese government policies affecting the provision of information services, including the provision of online services, internet access, e-commerce services, online advertising and online gaming may impose additional regulatory requirements on us or our service providers or otherwise harm our business.
The Chinese government restricts the ability for foreign investors to invest in and operate in certain types of telecommunications and internet businesses.
Foreign ownership of certain types of telecommunications and internet businesses which we operate, including value-added telecommunications services, internet cultural services and internet publication services, is subject to restrictions under applicable PRC laws. For example, on September 28, 2009, GAPP, together with the National Copyright Administration and National Office of Combating Pornography and Illegal Publications issued a Notice Regarding the Consistent Implementation of the “Regulation on Three Provisions” of the State Council and the Relevant Interpretations of the State Commission Office for Public Sector Reform and the Further Strengthening of the Administration of Examination and Approval of Online Games and the Examination and Approval of Imported Online Games, or Circular 13. According to Circular 13, foreign investors are not permitted to invest in online game operating businesses in China via wholly-owned, equity joint venture or cooperative joint venture investments and expressly prohibits foreign investors from gaining control over or participating in domestic online game operators through indirect ways such as establishing other joint venture companies, or contractual or technical arrangements. In addition, the Administration of Online Publishing Service jointly issued by the SAPPRFT and the MIIT, effective on March 10, 2016, forbids foreign investments in the online publishing business.
With respect to our internet portal and relate mobile app, the CAC’s Provisions for the Administration of Internet News Information Services, which became effective from June 1, 2017, expressly prohibit any Sino-foreign equity joint venture or cooperative joint venture or any foreign-funded enterprise to conduct internet-based news information services. We believe we are in compliance with such requirement because our internet portal and related mobile app business is conducted through the contractually controlled VIEs that are PRC entities. Additionally, in accordance with the Several Opinions on the Introduction of Foreign Capital to the Culture Sector (Wen Ban Fa  No. 19) issued by the MOC on July 6, 2005, foreign investors (excluding Hong Kong and Macau) are prohibited from establishing or operating internet-based cultural institutions. It is unclear what activities count as “operating internet-based cultural institutions,” however certain services we provide in our innovative businesses and others segment are likely to be deemed as such. We believe we are also in compliance with this requirement because we operate our other innovative businesses and other services through the contractually controlled VIEs.
It is unclear whether the authorities will deem the VIE structure of the NetEase group as a kind of “indirect way” for foreign investors to gain control over or participate in domestic online game operators, internet-based news information services or internet-based cultural institutions. If the VIE structure is deemed as one such “indirect way,” the VIE structure may be challenged by the authorities and the authorities may require us to restructure the VIE structure and take action to prohibit or restrict our business operations. In such case, we may not be able to operate or control business in the same manner as we currently do and may not be able to consolidate the VIEs. Please also see “—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure” above for a discussion of the risks associated with the VIE structure.
In recent years, the PRC government has been promoting foreign investment reform in some sectors and purported to loosen the foreign investment restrictions in those sectors. For example, the Notice of the MIIT on Removing the Restrictions on Foreign Equity Ratios in Online Data Processing and Transaction Processing (Operating E-commerce) Business promulgated by the MIIT on June 19, 2015 allows foreign investors to hold up to 100% of the equity interests in an online data processing and transaction processing business (operational e-commerce) in China. In addition, the NDRC and the MOFCOM jointly published the 2019 edition of the Special Administrative Measures for Access of Foreign Investments, or the 2019 Negative List, which came into effect on July 30, 2019. The 2019 Negative List removed some of the previous restrictions on value-added telecommunications providers by allowing foreign investors to hold up to 100% of the equity interests in e-commerce, domestic multi-party communication, e-storage and forwarding and call center businesses in China. The 2019 Negative List has been replaced by the 2020 edition and the 2021 edition of the Special Administrative Measures for Access of Foreign Investment, which retain the same provisions with respect to value-added telecommunication businesses as the 2019 Negative List. Furthermore, the amended Regulation for the Administration of Foreign-Invested Telecommunications Enterprises, which took effect on May 1, 2022, removes some of the requirements for major foreign investors in a foreign-invested telecommunications enterprise engaging in value-added telecommunication services. For example, the record of good performance and operating experience in managing value-added telecommunication services for the major foreign investors have been removed. It is unclear, however, how these new regulations and policies will be implemented. More generally, the authorities in China have broad discretion in the determination and interpretation of the rules and regulations regarding foreign investment in the telecommunications and internet business, which may adversely impact our financial statements, operations and cash flows.
The approval, filing or other requirements of the CSRC, CAC or other PRC government authorities may be required under PRC law in connection with our issuance of securities overseas or maintenance of the listing status of our ADSs or ordinary shares, and the PRC government’s oversight and discretion over our business operations could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs or ordinary shares.
The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, purport to require offshore special purpose vehicles that are controlled by PRC companies or individuals and that have been formed for the purpose of seeking a public listing on an overseas stock exchange through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies or assets to obtain CSRC approval prior to publicly listing their securities on an overseas stock exchange. The interpretation and application of the regulations remain unclear. If CSRC approval under the M&A Rules is required, it is uncertain whether it would be possible for us to obtain the approval, and any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining CSRC approval for our future issuance of securities overseas would subject us to sanctions imposed by the CSRC and other PRC regulatory agencies.
Furthermore, our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. The PRC government has significant oversight and discretion over the operation of our business, and it may influence our operations, which could result in a material adverse change in our operation and the value of our ADSs and ordinary shares. The PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight over overseas offerings and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers like us. For example, the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities issued on July 6, 2021 emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over “illegal securities activities” and the supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies, and proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems to deal with the risks and incidents faced by China-based overseas-listed companies, although such opinions did not specify the definition of “illegal securities activities.” Such opinions further provided that the special provisions of the State Council on overseas offerings and listings by those companies limited by shares will be revised and therefore the duties of domestic industry competent authorities and regulatory agencies will be clarified. Subsequently, CAC issued the Draft Data Securities Regulations and CAC, NDRC, MIIT and other ten PRC regulatory authorities jointed issued the Cybersecurity Review Measures which further strengthened the cybersecurity review measures. For more details, please see “—Risks Related to Our Operations Overall—We are subject to a variety of laws and other obligations regarding data security and personal information protection in China, and our failure to comply with any of them could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others and harm our public image and reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.”
In addition, on February 17, 2023, CSRC issued a new set of regulations consists of the Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies and five supporting guidelines (collectively, the “Filing Rules”) which came into effect on March 31, 2023. The Filing Rules regulate both direct and indirect overseas offering and listing of PRC domestic companies’ securities by adopting a filing-based regulatory regime. A “direct” overseas offering and listing by domestic companies refers to such overseas offering and listing by a joint-stock company incorporated domestically. An “indirect” overseas offering and listing by domestic companies refers to such overseas offering and listing by a company in the name of an overseas incorporated entity, whereas the company’s major business operations are located domestically and such offering and listing is based on the underlying equity, assets, earnings or other similar rights of a domestic company. The Filing Rules apply to overseas offerings by domestic companies of equity shares, depository receipts, convertible corporate bonds and other equity securities that are offered and listed overseas, and we may be required to submit filings to the CSRC in connection with future issuances of our equity securities to foreign investors. In order to support domestic companies’ overseas securities offering and listing pursuant to PRC laws and regulations, as a supplement to the Trial Measures, on February 24, 2023, CSRC and other three PRC regulatory authorities jointly issued the Provisions on Strengthening Confidentiality and Archives Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the “Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions”), which took effect on March 31, 2023, according to which, a domestic company that seeks overseas offering and listing and the securities companies and securities service providers that undertake relevant businesses must strictly abide by applicable PRC laws and regulations, enhance legal awareness of keeping state secrets and strengthening archives administration, institute a sound confidentiality and archives administration system, and take necessary measures to fulfill confidentiality and archives administration obligations. For more information with respect to the Filing Rules and the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions, see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Government Regulations—Regulations Relating to Overseas Listing.” As the Filing Rules and the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions are relatively new, there are substantial uncertainties with respect to their interpretation and implementation.
If the CSRC, CAC or other relevant PRC regulatory agencies subsequently determine that approval is required for any of our future offerings of securities overseas or to maintain the listing status of our ADSs or ordinary shares, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain such approval in a timely manner, or at all. The CSRC, CAC or other PRC regulatory agencies also may take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, not to proceed with such offering or maintain the listing status of our ADSs or ordinary shares. If we proceed with any of such offering or maintain the listing status of our ADSs or ordinary shares without obtaining the CSRC’s or other relevant PRC regulatory agencies’ approval to the extent it is required, or if we are unable to comply with any new approval requirements which might be adopted for offerings that we have completed prior to the publication of the above-referenced opinions, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC, CAC or other PRC regulatory agencies. These regulatory agencies may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from offering of securities overseas into China or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of the ADSs or ordinary shares.
Furthermore, if there are any other approvals, filings and/or other administration procedures to be obtained from or completed with the CSRC, CAC or other PRC regulatory agencies as required by any new laws and regulations for any of our future proposed offering of securities overseas or the listing of the ADSs or ordinary shares, we cannot assure you that we can obtain the required approval or complete the required filings or other regulatory procedures in a timely manner, or at all. Any failure to obtain the relevant approvals or complete the filings and other relevant regulatory procedures may subject us to regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, implementation of industry-wide regulations affecting our operations could cause the value of our securities to significantly decline. Therefore, investors of our company and our business face potential uncertainty from actions taken by the PRC government affecting our business.
The Chinese government has not enacted any specific laws regarding virtual asset property rights and, accordingly, it is not clear what liabilities, if any, online game providers may have for virtual assets.
One of the features of our PC and mobile MMORPG and other games which helps to build a large user base and maintain loyalty is that users can accumulate virtual tools, powers and rankings as they play the games. We believe that these virtual assets are highly valued by our users, particularly long-term users, and are traded among users. However, on occasion, such assets can be lost if, for example, a user’s identity is stolen by another user or we experience a system error or crash. Other than the PRC Civil Code, which was passed by the National People’s Representative Meeting on May 28, 2020 and took effect on January 1, 2021, which prescribes that network virtual property will be protected according to the laws and regulations stipulating the protection of such property, the Chinese government has not yet enacted any specific laws regarding virtual property rights. Accordingly, we have no basis to determine what are the legal rights, if any, associated with virtual assets and what liabilities we could be exposed to for the loss or destruction of virtual assets. We could therefore potentially be held liable for the way in which we handle and protect virtual assets.
Restrictions on virtual currency may adversely affect our online game revenues.
A large part of our online game revenues are collected through the sale of prepaid points, as described elsewhere on this annual report.
On February 15, 2007, the MOC, the PBOC, and 12 other PRC regulatory authorities jointly issued the Notice on the Reinforcement of the Administration of Internet Cafés and Online Games, or the Internet Cafés Notice, which strengthens the administration of virtual currency in online games to avoid any adverse impact on the PRC economy and financial system. Under the Internet Cafés Notice, the total amount of virtual currency issued by online game operators and the amount purchased by individual users should be strictly limited, with a clear distinction between virtual transactions and real transactions, so that virtual currency should only be used to purchase virtual items.
On June 4, 2009, the MOC and the MOFCOM jointly issued the Notice on Strengthening the Administration of Online Game Virtual Currency, or the Online Game Virtual Currency Notice, which defined “Virtual Currency” as a type of virtual exchange instrument that is issued by online game operators, purchased directly or indirectly by the game user by exchanging legal currency at a certain exchange rate, saved outside the game programs, stored in servers provided by the online game operators in electronic record format and represented by specific numeric units. In addition, the Online Game Virtual Currency Notice categorizes companies involved with virtual currency as either issuers or trading platforms and prohibits companies from simultaneously engaging both as issuers and as trading platforms. The Online Game Virtual Currency Notice’s objective is to limit the circulation of virtual currency and thereby reduce concerns that it may impact real world inflation. To accomplish this, the Online Game Virtual Currency Notice requires online game operators to report the total amount of their issued virtual currencies on a quarterly basis and to refrain from issuing disproportionate amounts of virtual currencies in order to generate revenues. In addition, the Online Game Virtual Currency Notice reiterates that virtual currency can only be provided to users in exchange for an RMB payment and can only be used to pay for virtual goods and services of the issuers. Online game operators are strictly prohibited from conducting lucky draws or lotteries in which participants pay cash or virtual currency to win game items or virtual currency. The Online Game Virtual Currency Notice also requires online game operators to keep transaction data records for no less than 180 days and to not provide virtual currency trading services to minors.
In order to comply with the requirements of the Online Game Virtual Currency Notice, we may need to change our prepaid point card distribution and database systems, resulting in higher costs of our online game operation, lower sales of our prepaid cards, or other changes in our business model. Such changes may therefore have an adverse effect on our revenues from online games.
Information displayed on, retrieved from or linked to the NetEase websites and other online and mobile platforms may subject us to claims of violating PRC laws.
Internet companies in China are subject to a variety of existing and new rules, regulations, policies, and license and permit requirements on the distribution of information over the mobile and internet. Under these rules and regulations, content service providers are prohibited from posting or displaying over the mobile or internet content that, among others, violates PRC laws and regulations, impairs the national security of China, is obscene, superstitious, defamatory, or may be deemed by relevant government authorities as “socially destabilizing” or leaking “state secrets” of China. Violations or perceived violations of Chinese laws arising from information displayed on, retrieved from or linked to the NetEase websites and other online and mobile platforms could result in significant penalties, including a temporary or complete cessation of our business.
Multiple organizations are involved in the administering of such regulations, including the Propaganda Department of the Chinese Communist Party, which has been given the responsibility to censor news published in China to ensure a particular political ideology, and the CAC, which has been given the responsibility to protect, supervise and administer cyber security issues in China. In addition, the MIIT has published implementing regulations that subject online information providers to potential liability for content included in their media and the actions of subscribers and others using their systems, including liability for violation of PRC laws prohibiting the distribution of content deemed to be socially destabilizing. The Ministry of Public Security has also from time to time prohibited the distribution over the internet of information which it believes to be socially destabilizing. In addition, the NRTA is involved in the supervising, administering and reviewing of the content and quality of radio and television programs and internet audio-visual programs. The MOCT is involved in guiding and administering the literary and artistic undertakings and artistic creation and production. The PRC government and regulatory authorities strengthen the regulation on internet content from time to time. For example, according to the Administrative Measures for Online Live Streaming Marketing (for Trial Implementation), which were issued by NRTA and several other government authorities jointly on April 23, 2021 and became effective on May 25, 2021, a live streaming marketing platform must be staffed with live streaming content management professionals commensurate with the scale of services, have the technical capacity to maintain the security of online live streaming content and have technical solutions that comply with relevant national standards. With respect to online performance, the Administrative Measures for Business Activities Relating to Online Performance which were issued by MOC on December 2, 2016 and took effect on January 1, 2017, requires that an online performance business operator must develop sound administrative rules for content examination, appoint examiners that meet the needs of self-examination and have obtained corresponding qualifications, and establish technical regulatory measures that meet the needs of content management. With respect to the mobile internal applications specifically, the Administrative Provisions on Mobile Internet Applications Information Services, which were issued by CAC on June 14, 2022 and became effective on August 1, 2022, requires the application providers not only to establish sound information content review and management mechanism, establish sound management measures such as user registration, account management, information review, daily inspection and emergency disposal, and be staffed with professionals and technical ability appropriate to the service scale, but also to conduct security assessment in accordance with the relevant provisions of Chinese laws before launching new technologies, new applications and new functions with the attribute of public opinions or capable of social mobilization. With respect to the internet pop-up window information push services (referring to the information push services provided to internet users in the form of pop-up message windows through operating systems, application software, websites, etc.), the Administrative Provisions on Internet Pop-up Window Information Push Services, which were issued by the CAC, MIIT and SAMR on September 9, 2022 and took effect on September 30, 2022, require that providers of internet pop-up window information push services must take responsibilities as an information content management entity and establish and improve management systems for censoring of information content, ecological governance, data security and personal information protection, and protection of minors. With respect to comment threading services (referring to the services of threading text, symbols, expressions, pictures, audio and video and other information provided for the users by way of comments, replies, messages, bullet screens, likes, etc.), the Administrative Provisions on Comment Threading Services on the Internet, or the Comment Threading Provisions, which were issued by CAC on November 16, 2022 and took effect on December 15, 2022, grant CAC the responsibility for the supervision and administration of comment threading services nationwide, and provide that the application providers will be responsible for the information contents presented and may not produce and disseminate illegal information and must consciously prevent and resist unhealthy information. For example, the Comment Threading Provisions require that comment threading service providers must regulate the management of the users of the comment threading services and the producers and business operators of official accounts in accordance with the user service agreement, while the producers and business operators of official accounts are required to strengthen the examination and management of the comment information content for the accounts, timely discover illegal and negative information content in the comment threading links and take necessary measures such as whistleblowing and handling. The Comment Threading Provisions further provide that the producers and business operators of official accounts may, according to the user service agreement, apply to the comment threading service providers for management authorities of the comment threading area, and the comment threading service providers must, after conducting a credit assessment on the comment management by the producers and business operators of the official accounts, reasonably set the management authority and provide relevant technical support.
The Ministry of Public Security has the authority to require any local internet service provider to block any website maintained outside China at its sole discretion. The State Secrecy Bureau, which is directly responsible for the protection of state secrets of all PRC government and Chinese Communist Party organizations, is authorized to block any website it deems to be leaking state secrets or failing to meet the relevant regulations relating to the protection of state secrets in the distribution of online information. The term “state secrets” has been broadly interpreted by Chinese governmental authorities in the past. We may be liable under any of these pronouncements for content and materials posted, uploaded or transmitted by users on our platform. User-generated content is accessible on the NetEase websites and our other online and mobile platforms including Wangyi Xinwen and NetEase Cloud Music, such as content and materials posted or uploaded by users on message boards, online communities and social networking platforms. We have implemented an efficient and thorough content screening and monitoring mechanism for NetEase Cloud Music and our other platforms which involve both automated filtering and manual review, to timely remove any inappropriate or illegal content, including interactive content on our platform. However, such procedures may not prevent all illegal or impropriate content or comments from being posted, and our editorial staff may fail to review and screen such content or comments effectively. To the extent that PRC regulatory authorities find any content on our platform objectionable, they may require us to limit or eliminate the dissemination of such content on our platform in the form of take-down orders or otherwise. Failure to identify and prevent illegal or inappropriate content from being distributed on our platform may subject us to liability. Recently, PRC governmental authorities have tightened regulations on online content. For example, the CAC launched the “Clear and Bright” campaign to rectify a variety of online misconduct in May 2021, in response to which certain policies were issued and enforcement actions were launched. If the PRC governmental authorities determine that we are not in compliance with all the requirements under applicable laws and regulations relating to internet content, we may be subject to fines and/or other sanctions such as an order to correct the violation, confiscation of illegal earnings, suspension or shutdown of the related business and website, cessation of business operation for rectification, and revocation of business license, any of which could disrupt our operations. In addition, PRC laws and regulations are subject to interpretation by the relevant authorities, and it may not be possible to determine in all cases the types of content that could result in our liability as a platform operator.
Furthermore, under the relevant regulations, internet companies which provide bulletin board systems, chat rooms or similar services, such as NetEase, must apply for the approval of the State Secrecy Bureau. As the implementing rules of these regulations have not been issued, we do not know how or when we will be expected to comply, or how our business will be affected by the application of these regulations.
We face uncertainties with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the anti-monopoly related laws in the field of internet platforms.
The PRC Anti-Monopoly Law, which took effect on August 1, 2008, prohibits monopolistic conduct such as entering into monopoly agreements, abusing market dominance and concentration of undertakings that may have the effect of eliminating or restricting competition. Violations of such law can result in an order to stop the illegal conduct, confiscation of revenue earned from such conduct and a fine of 1% to 10% of the total amount of revenue earned in the prior year. On February 7, 2021, the Anti-Monopoly Commission of the State Council promulgated the Guidelines to Anti-Monopoly in the Field of Internet Platforms, or the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines, which took effect on the same date and operate as a compliance guidance for platform economy operators under the existing PRC anti-monopoly laws and regulations. The Anti-Monopoly Guidelines aim at specifying some of the circumstances under which an activity of internet platforms may be identified as monopolistic conduct as well as setting out filing procedures for concentration of undertakings involving variable interest entities. The Anti-Monopoly Guidelines mainly covers five aspects, including general provisions, monopoly agreements, abusing market dominance, concentration of undertakings, and abusing of administrative powers eliminating or restricting competition.
On June 24, 2022, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress issued the 2022 Amendment to the Anti-Monopoly Law, which amends the penalties for illegal concentration of business operators to include the discontinuation of concentration, disposal of the shares or assets within a specified time limit, transfer of the business within a specified time limit and the adoption of other necessary measures to return to the state prior to the concentration, and a fine of no more than ten percent of its prior year’s sales revenue if the concentration of the business operators has or may have an effect of eliminating or restricting competitions; or a fine of up to RMB5 million if the concentration of business operators does not have an effect of eliminating or restricting competitions. The amendment also authorizes the relevant authority to investigate transactions where there is evidence that the concentration has or may have the effect of eliminating or restricting competitions, even if such concentration does not reach the filing threshold.
Recently, the SAMR has imposed administrative penalties in a number of anti-monopoly cases in the internet industry, and the regulatory environment for anti-monopoly in the internet industry has been entering into a phase of normalized regulation and control. Given the uncertainties of the interpretation and implementation of the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines and the newly amended Anti-Monopoly Law and considering the evolving legislative activities and varied local implementation practices of anti-monopoly and competition laws and regulations in the PRC, we may be required to make expenditures and adjust our business practice to comply with existing or future laws and regulations, which may increase our costs and limit our ability to operate our business. In addition, failure or perceived failure to comply with Anti-Monopoly Guidelines, and the newly amended Anti-Monopoly Law or other anti-monopoly related laws and regulations may result in investigations or enforcement actions, litigation or claims against us and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial conditions and results of operations.
We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property and may be exposed to infringement claims by third parties.
We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, patent and trade secrecy laws and contractual restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. Our efforts to protect our proprietary rights may not be effective in preventing unauthorized parties from copying or otherwise obtaining and using our technology or imitating our name, private label merchandise or other intellectual property. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and we cannot be certain that the steps we take will effectively prevent misappropriation of our technology or other intellectual property.
From time to time, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources. In addition, our current and future business activities, including our portal service and private label merchandise, may infringe upon the proprietary rights of others, and third parties may assert infringement claims against us, including claims alleging, among other things, copyright, trademark or patent infringement. Third parties have initiated litigation against us for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights, and additional claims may arise in the future. In the event of a successful claim of infringement and our failure or inability to develop non-infringing technology or content or to license the infringed or similar technology or content on a timely basis, our business could suffer. Moreover, even if we are able to license the infringed or similar technology or content, license fees that we pay to licensors could be substantial or uneconomical. See Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Intellectual Property.”
We are subject to consumer protection laws that could require us to modify our current business practices and incur increased costs.
Our e-commerce business is subject to numerous PRC laws and regulations that regulate retailers generally or govern online retailers specifically, such as the Consumer Protection Law. If these regulations were to change or if we or our suppliers were to violate them, the costs of certain products or services could increase, or we could be subject to fines or penalties or suffer reputational harm, which could reduce demand for the products or services offered on our e-commerce platform as well as third-party platforms and hurt our business, financial conditions and results of operations. For example, the amended Consumer Protection Law, which became effective in March 2014, strengthens the protection of consumers and imposes more stringent requirements and obligations on business operators, with a particular focus on businesses that operate via the internet. Pursuant to the Consumer Protection Law, consumers are generally entitled to return goods purchased within seven days upon receipt without giving any reasons if the purchases are made through the internet. Consumers whose interests have been harmed due to their purchase of goods or acceptance of services on e-commerce platforms may claim damages from sellers or service providers.
Laws and regulations regarding consumer protection, particularly those involving transactions conducted over the internet, frequently change and are subject to interpretation. We are therefore unable to predict the ultimate cost of compliance of the relevant laws or regulations or their effect on our operations. We may be required to make significant expenditures or modify our business practices to comply with existing or future laws and regulations, which may increase our costs and materially limit our ability to operate our business.
Regulatory restrictions on financial transactions may adversely affect the operation and profitability of our business.
On June 14, 2010, the PBOC issued the Measures for the Administration of Non-financial Institutions Engaging in Payment and Settlement Services, or the PBOC Measures, which became effective on September 1, 2010 and were revised on April 29, 2020, and require that non-financial institutions engaging in the business of effecting payments and settlements before September 1, 2010 obtain a permit from the PBOC by August 31, 2011 to continue operating their business. We currently operate an online payment platform used by both distributors of our prepaid points and end-users of our online services, which requires a permit under the PBOC Measures. In addition, on December 28, 2015, the PBOC issued a notice regarding the Administrative Measures for the Internet Payment Services of Non-bank Payment Institutions, or the PBOC Notice 43, which took effect on July 1, 2016. According to the PBOC Notice 43, a payment institution is required to follow the principles of “know your clients,” and maintain records on its clients using their real names when opening payment accounts for its clients. Pursuant to the PBOC Notice 43, a payment institution may not engage in, including in a disguised form, such businesses as securities, insurance, credit loans, financing, wealth management, guarantee, trust, currency exchange, cash deposit and withdrawal services. In addition, a payment institution is required to, based on client identity, conduct affiliated management of all the payment accounts opened by the same client. On January 13, 2017, the PBOC issued the Notice of the PBOC on Matters concerning Implementing the Centralized Deposit of the Funds of Pending Payments of Clients of Payment Institutions, which requires that from April 17, 2017, payment institutions transfer a portion of customer reserve funds to a specifically designated bank account upon the request of the PBOC and that no interest be allowed to accrue upon the transferred customer reserve funds for the time being. On June 29, 2018, the PBOC issued a further notice, namely the Notice of the General Office of PBOC on Matters Concerning the Centralized Deposit of the Full Amount of Customer Reserve Funds by Payment Institutions, which requires payment institutions to cause up to 100% of the customer reserve funds to be transferred to the above-mentioned account. On January 19, 2021, the PBOC issued the Measures for Deposit and Management of Customer Reserve Funds by Non-bank Payment Institutions, or the Measures for Customer Reserve Funds, which became effective on March 1, 2021. The Measures for Customer Reserve Funds define “Clients’ Reserves” as funds actually received by non-bank payment institutions when processing payments for clients and payable upon clients’ order, which must be fully deposited by the non-bank payment institutions into a dedicated deposit account held in the custody of banking institutions. The Measures for Customer Reserve Funds standardize the centralized deposit and management business of customer’s reserves after centralized deposit of reserves, further refine the provisions on deposit, use and transfer of reserves, clarify the corresponding reserve management responsibilities of the PBOC and its branches, clearing institutions and reserve banks, set punishment standards for violations of customer’s reserves and promote the development of the industry. On September 2, 2022, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the Anti-Telecom and Online Fraud Law of PRC, effective on December 1, 2022, which requires that non-bank payment institutions, together with banking financial institutions, must establish a customer due diligence system during the opening of bank accounts and payment accounts and the provision of payment and settlement services for customers, and during the existence of the business relationship with customers, identify the beneficial owners and take appropriate risk management measures to prevent the use of bank accounts and payment accounts for telecom or online fraud according to relevant laws.
We are in compliance with the PBOC Notice 43 and the recent PBOC requirements to transfer our customer reserve funds to its designated bank account, however, we cannot predict how the regulations relating to financial transactions will evolve or be certain that we will be able to maintain compliance with all relevant regulations at a reasonable cost. Any inability to continue operating our current online payment platform would likely materially and adversely affect the operation and profitability of our business.
Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system, including uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws, and sudden or unexpected changes in policies, laws and regulations in China, could adversely affect us.
The Chinese legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike common law systems, it is a system in which decided legal cases have less precedential value. In the late 1970s, the Chinese government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters. The overall effect of legislation enacted over the past 40 years has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to foreign invested enterprises in China. However, many of these laws, regulations and legal requirements are relatively recent and are evolving rapidly, and their interpretation and enforcement involve uncertainties. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy. These uncertainties may affect our judgment on the relevance of legal requirements and our ability to enforce our contractual rights or tort claims. In addition, the regulatory uncertainties may be exploited through unmerited or frivolous legal actions or threats in attempts to extract payments or benefits from us. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all. As a result, we cannot assure that we can comply with these policies or rules at all times. In addition, any administrative and court proceedings may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.
The PRC government has significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and may intervene with or influence our operations as the government deems appropriate to further regulatory, political and societal goals. The PRC government has recently published new policies that adversely affected our industry and our business, and we cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future further release regulations or policies regarding our industry that could further adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Contract drafting, interpretation and enforcement in China involve significant uncertainty.
We have entered into numerous contracts governed by PRC law, many of which are material to our business. As compared with contracts in the United States, certain contracts governed by PRC law may contain less detail and may not be as comprehensive in defining contracting parties’ rights and obligations in some instances. As a result, those contracts are more vulnerable to disputes and legal challenges. In addition, contract interpretation and enforcement by the court in China is not as developed as in the United States, and the result of contract dispute in certain cases is subject to significant uncertainties. Therefore, we cannot assure you that we will not be subject to disputes under our material contracts, and if such disputes arise, we cannot assure you that we will prevail. Any dispute involving material contracts, even without merit in plaintiff’s regard, may materially and adversely affect our reputation and our business operations, and may cause the price of our ADSs and/or shares to decline.
Changes in China’s political and economic policies could harm our business.
The economy of China has historically been a planned economy subject to governmental plans and quotas and has, in certain aspects, been transitioning to a more market-oriented economy. Although we believe that the economic reform and the macroeconomic measures adopted by the Chinese government have had a positive effect on the economic development of China, we cannot predict the future direction of these economic reforms or the effects these measures may have on our business, financial position or results of operations. In addition, the Chinese economy differs from the economies of most countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, or OECD. These differences include:
As a result of these differences, our business may not develop in the same way or at the same rate as might be expected if the Chinese economy were similar to those of the OECD member countries.
Our business benefits from certain PRC government incentives. Expiration of, or changes to, these incentives and PRC tax laws could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.
Under China’s Enterprise Income Tax Law, the enterprise income tax, or EIT, rate payable by domestic and foreign-invested enterprises is 25.0%. Preferential tax treatments are granted to entities that conduct business in encouraged sectors and to entities that are classified as HNTEs, or “Software Enterprises” or “Key Software Enterprises,” whether such entities are foreign invested enterprises or domestic companies.
A number of our subsidiaries enjoy preferential tax rates by being recognized as an HNTE and/or a “Key Software Enterprise.” For example, Boguan, NetEase Hangzhou and certain other China mainland subsidiaries were qualified as HNTEs and enjoyed a preferential tax rate of 15% for 2020, 2021 and 2022. In 2020, Boguan, NetEase Hangzhou and certain other China mainland subsidiaries were also qualified as Key Software Enterprises and enjoyed a further reduced preferential tax rate of 10% for 2019. The related tax benefit was recorded in 2020. See Item 5.A. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Income Taxes.”
Although we will attempt to obtain or maintain similar preferential tax statuses for our subsidiaries in the future, we cannot assure you that we will obtain or maintain any particular preferential tax status, and typically the relevant government agencies do not confirm that we have obtained or maintained a particular tax status until late in a given tax year or the following tax year. The qualifications for HNTE or “Software Enterprise” or “Key Software Enterprise” status are subject to an annual assessment by the relevant government authorities in China, and the PRC policies on preferential tax treatments may change from time to time. For example, in 2021 and 2022, none of our China mainland subsidiaries were qualified as Key Software Enterprises for 2020 and 2021, respectively. Without any preferential tax status, the standard EIT rate of 25.0% will apply. Moreover, if there are further changes to the relevant income tax laws and their implementation, our subsidiaries and the VIEs may need to pay additional taxes, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We may be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes under the Enterprise Income Tax Law, which may subject us to PRC income tax for our global income and result in dividends payable by us to our foreign investors, and gains on the sales of our ordinary shares or ADSs, becoming subject to taxes under PRC tax laws, which may materially reduce the value of your investment.
Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law, enterprises established outside of the PRC whose “de facto management bodies” are located in the PRC are considered “resident enterprises,” and will generally be subject to the uniform 25.0% EIT rate for their global income. Under the implementation rules of the Enterprise Income Tax Law, “de facto management body” is defined as the body that has material and overall management control over the business, personnel, accounts and properties of the enterprise. In April 2009, the PRC tax authority promulgated a circular to clarify the criteria for determining whether the “de facto management bodies” are located within the PRC for enterprises established outside of the PRC that are controlled by entities established within the PRC. However, the relevant laws and regulations remain unclear regarding treatment of an enterprise established outside the PRC that is not controlled by entities established within the PRC.
Some of our management is currently located in the PRC. Accordingly, we may be considered a “resident enterprise” and may therefore be subject to the EIT rate of 25.0% of our global income, and as a result, the amount of dividends we can pay to our shareholders could be reduced. We cannot confirm whether we will be considered a “resident enterprise” because the implementation rules are unclear at this time.
Under the implementation rules of the Enterprise Income Tax Law, dividends paid to “non-resident enterprises” by “resident enterprises” on profits earned after January 1, 2008 are regarded as income from “sources within the PRC” and therefore subject to a 10.0% withholding income tax, while dividends on profits earned before January 1, 2008 are not subject to the withholding income tax. Similarly, gains realized on the transfer of ordinary shares or ADSs by “non-resident enterprises” are also subject to a 10.0% PRC EIT if such gains are regarded as income derived from sources within the PRC. A lower withholding income tax rate is applied if the “non-resident enterprises” are registered in Hong Kong or other jurisdictions that have a favorable tax treaty arrangement with China. Nevertheless, the Announcement on Issues Concerning “Beneficial Owners” in Tax Treaties, or the STA Circular 9, which was issued on February 3, 2018 by the STA and effective on April 1, 2018, provides that a “non-resident enterprise” which does not engage in substantive business activities may not be deemed to be a beneficial owner that is entitled to the above-mentioned reduced income tax rate of 5%. It is unclear at this stage whether STA Circular 9 applies to dividends from our China mainland subsidiaries paid to us through our Hong Kong subsidiaries. It is possible that under STA Circular 9 our Hong Kong subsidiaries would not be considered to be the beneficial owners of any such dividends, and that, if such dividends are subject to withholding, such withholding rate would be 10% rather than the favorable 5% rate generally applicable under the tax treaty between China mainland and Hong Kong.
Because we may be treated as a “resident enterprise,” any dividends paid to the investors which are considered “non-resident enterprises” and individual shareholders who are non-PRC residents may be subject to withholding income tax, and gains realized on the transfer of our ordinary shares or ADSs by such investors may be subject to PRC income tax if such dividends or gains are deemed to be from PRC sources, which may adversely and materially affect the value of the investment in our shares or ADSs. The tax rate for gains and dividends is 10% for “non-resident enterprise” shareholders and 20% for non-PRC individual shareholders, subject to any reduction or exemption set forth in applicable tax treaties. However, it is unclear whether in practice non-PRC shareholders would be able to obtain the benefits of income tax treaties entered into between PRC and their countries or areas.
We and our shareholders face uncertainties with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by a non-PRC company.
On February 3, 2015, the STA issued the Bulletin on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or Bulletin 7, which has been further amended by the Announcement on Issues Concerning the Withholding of Enterprise Income Tax at Source on Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or Bulletin 37, issued by the STA on October 17, 2017 and amended on June 15, 2018. Pursuant to these bulletins, subject to a safe harbor for purchase and sale of equity securities through a public securities market, an “indirect transfer” of assets, including equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises may be re-characterized and treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable assets, if the arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from this indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax.
Fluctuation in Renminbi exchange rates could adversely affect the value of our ADSs and ordinary shares and any cash dividend declared on them.
The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in political and economic conditions and the foreign exchange policy adopted by the PRC government. In 2020 and 2021, the value of the Renminbi appreciated by approximately 6.7% and 2.4% against the U.S. dollar, respectively. In 2022, the value of the Renminbi depreciated by approximately 7.6% against the U.S. dollar. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy, including any interest rate increases by the Federal Reserve, may impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future. There remains significant international pressure on the PRC government to adopt a more flexible currency policy, including from the U.S. government. In August 2019, the U.S. Treasury Department announced that it labelled China a “currency manipulator,” which was officially dropped by the U.S. Treasury Department in January 2020. However, it is uncertain whether the U.S. government may issue any similar announcement in the future. As a result of such announcement, the United States may take further actions to eliminate perceived unfair competitive advantages created by alleged manipulating actions. Any actions taken by the U.S. Treasury Department in this regard as well as China’s possible responses could result in greater fluctuation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar.
Our revenues are primarily denominated in Renminbi, and any significant depreciation of the RMB may affect the value of, and dividends (if any) payable on, our ordinary shares or ADSs in U.S. dollar terms. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars into RMB for our operations, appreciation of the RMB against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the RMB amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our RMB into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our ordinary shares, repaying our U.S. dollar denominated loans or other payment obligations or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the RMB would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us. In addition, appreciation or depreciation in the value of the RMB relative to U.S. dollars would affect our financial results reported in U.S. dollar terms regardless of any underlying change in our business or results of operations. For example, we experienced RMB3.1 billion and RMB0.5 billion net foreign exchange losses in 2020 and 2021, respectively, mainly due to the RMB appreciating against the U.S. dollar. In 2022, we experienced a RMB1.6 billion net foreign exchange gain due to the RMB depreciating against the U.S. dollar. Theses fluctuations had a significant effect on our profit and our cash dividend.
Restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively.
Most of our revenues and operating expenses are denominated in Renminbi. The Renminbi is currently freely convertible under the “current account” which includes dividends, trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, but not under the “capital account” which includes foreign direct investment and loans.
Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including payment of dividends, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval of SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. Our China mainland subsidiaries and affiliates may also retain foreign exchange in its current account to satisfy foreign exchange liabilities or to pay dividends.
Since a significant amount of our future revenues will be denominated in Renminbi, the existing and any future restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to utilize revenues generated in Renminbi to fund our business activities outside China, if any, or expenditures denominated in foreign currencies. In order to limit the flow of capital out of China, the overall current regulatory environment relating to foreign exchange controls in China suggests that, as a matter of practice, SAFE has been making it increasingly difficult to obtain foreign exchange approvals for offshore dividend payments or capital account settlement.
In addition, foreign exchange transactions under the capital account are subject to limitations and require registration with or approval by the relevant PRC governmental authorities. In particular, any transfer of funds from us to any of our China mainland subsidiaries or the VIEs, either as a shareholder loan or as an increase in registered capital, is subject to certain statutory limit requirements and registration or approval of the relevant PRC governmental authorities, including the relevant administration of foreign exchange and/or the relevant examining and approval authority. Our ability to use the U.S. dollar proceeds of the sale of our equity or debt to finance our business activities conducted through our China mainland subsidiaries or the VIEs will depend on our ability to obtain these governmental registrations or approvals. In addition, because of the regulatory issues related to foreign currency loans to, and foreign investment in, domestic PRC enterprises, we may not be able to finance the operations of our China mainland subsidiaries or the VIEs by loans or capital contributions. We cannot assure you that we can obtain these governmental registrations or approvals on a timely basis, if at all. Any future restrictions imposed by SAFE or tightened foreign exchange control by SAFE as a matter of practice may adversely affect our ability to utilize our revenues effectively and pay dividends to our shareholders.
Failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee equity incentive plans may subject our PRC citizen employees or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.
On February 15, 2012, SAFE issued the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas-Listed Company, or the Stock Incentive Plan Rule. Under the Stock Incentive Plan Rule, PRC citizens who are granted share options or other employee equity incentive awards by an overseas publicly-listed company are required, through a qualified PRC agent or a PRC subsidiary of such overseas publicly-listed company, to register with SAFE and complete certain other procedures related to the share options or other employee equity incentive plans. If we or such PRC participants fail to comply with these regulations, we or such PRC participants may be subject to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.
The Chinese government has strengthened the regulation of investments made by Chinese residents in offshore companies and reinvestments in China made by these offshore companies. Our business may be adversely affected by these restrictions.
The SAFE has adopted certain regulations that require registration with, and approval from, Chinese government authorities in connection with direct or indirect control of an offshore entity by Chinese residents. The term “control” under SAFE regulation is broadly defined as the operation rights, beneficiary rights or decision-making rights acquired by PRC residents in the offshore special purpose vehicles or PRC companies by means of acquisition, trust, proxy, voting rights, repurchase, convertible bonds or other arrangements. The SAFE regulations retroactively require registration of investments in non-Chinese companies previously made by Chinese residents. In particular, the SAFE regulations require Chinese residents to register with SAFE information about offshore companies in which they have directly or indirectly invested and to make follow-up registrations in connection with certain material transactions involving such offshore companies, such as mergers or division, capital increases and decreases, in equity transfer or exchange. A newly established enterprise in China which receives foreign investments is also required to provide detailed information about its controlling shareholders and to certify whether it is directly or indirectly controlled by a domestic entity or resident.
In the event that a Chinese shareholder with a direct or indirect stake in an offshore parent company fails to make the requisite SAFE registration, the Chinese subsidiaries of such offshore parent company may be prohibited from making distributions of profit to the offshore parent and from paying the offshore parent proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation in respect of the Chinese subsidiaries. Further, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above can result in liability under Chinese law for foreign exchange evasion.
These regulations may have a significant impact on our present and future structuring and investment. We have requested our shareholders who to our knowledge are PRC residents to make the necessary applications, registrations and amendments as required under these regulations. We intend to take all necessary measures to ensure that all required applications and registrations will be duly made and all other requirements will be met. We further intend to structure and execute our future offshore acquisitions in a manner consistent with these regulations and any other relevant legislation. However, because it is presently uncertain how the SAFE regulations, and any future legislation concerning offshore or cross-border transactions, will be interpreted and implemented by the relevant government authorities in connection with our future offshore financings or acquisitions, we cannot provide any assurances that we will be able to comply with, qualify under, or obtain any approvals required by the regulations or other legislation. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that any PRC shareholders of our company or any PRC company into which we invest will be able to comply with those requirements. The inability of our company or any PRC shareholder to secure required approvals or registrations in connection with our future offshore financings or acquisitions may subject us to legal sanctions, restrict our ability to pay dividends from our Chinese subsidiaries to our offshore holding company, and restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities or affect our ownership structure.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR ADSs AND SHARES
The PCAOB had historically been unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of our auditor in the past has deprived our investors with the benefits of such inspections.
Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. The auditor is located in China mainland a jurisdiction where the PCAOB was historically unable to conduct inspections and investigations completely before 2022. As a result, we and investors in the ADSs were deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China in the past has made it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections.
On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB issued a report that vacated its December 16, 2021 determination and removed China mainland and Hong Kong from the list of jurisdictions where it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms. However, if the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms in China mainland and Hong Kong, and we use an accounting firm headquartered in one of these jurisdictions to issue an audit report on our financial statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, we and investors in our ADSs would be deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections again, which could cause investors and potential investors in the ADSs to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.
Our ADSs may be prohibited from trading in the United States under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate auditors located in China. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.
Pursuant to the HFCAA, if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspections by the PCAOB for two consecutive years, the SEC will prohibit our shares or ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States.
On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report to notify the SEC of its determination that the PCAOB was unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in China mainland and Hong Kong and our auditor was subject to that determination. In May 2022, the SEC conclusively listed us as a Commission-Identified Issuer under the HFCAA following the filing of our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB removed China mainland and Hong Kong from the list of jurisdictions where it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms. For this reason, we do not expect to be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer under the HFCAA after we file this annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.
Each year, the PCAOB will determine whether it can inspect and investigate completely audit firms in China mainland and Hong Kong, among other jurisdictions. If the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms in China mainland and Hong Kong and we use an accounting firm headquartered in one of these jurisdictions to issue an audit report on our financial statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, we would be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer following the filing of the annual report on Form 20-F for the relevant fiscal year. In accordance with the HFCAA, our securities would be prohibited from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States if we are identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer for two consecutive years in the future. Although our ordinary shares have been listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and the ADSs and ordinary shares are fully fungible, we cannot assure you that an active trading market for our ordinary shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange will be sustained or that the ADSs can be converted and traded with sufficient market recognition and liquidity, if our shares and ADSs are prohibited from trading in the United States. A prohibition of being able to trade in the United States would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our ADSs when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with delisting would have a negative impact on the price of our ADSs. Also, such a prohibition would significantly affect our ability to raise capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all, which would have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and prospects.
The trading price of our ADSs and shares has been and is likely to continue to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to holders of our ADSs and/or shares.
The trading price of our ADSs has been and is likely to continue to be volatile and could fluctuate widely in response to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. The trading price of our shares, likewise, can be volatile for similar or different reasons. For example, the trading prices of our ADSs ranged from US$53.09 to US$108.77 per ADS in 2022 and the trading prices of our ordinary shares ranged from HK$84.05 to HK$173.00 per ordinary share in 2022. In addition, the performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other companies with business operations located mainly in China, especially internet and technology companies that have listed their securities in Hong Kong and/or the United States, may affect the overall investor attitude towards Chinese public companies. The securities of some of these companies have experienced and may continue to experience significant volatility, resulting from, among other things, underperformance and deteriorating financial results, negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices, and fraudulent behaviors of such companies. Consequently, the trading performance of our shares and/or ADSs may be adversely and materially affected, regardless of our actual operation performance.
In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for our shares and/or ADSs may be highly volatile for factors specific to our operation, including the following:
|●||variations in our results of operations that are not in line with market or research analyst expectations or changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;|
|●||announcements of studies and reports relating to the quality of our product and service offerings or those of our competitors;|
|●||changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other market players in our industries;|
|●||announcements made by us or our competitors of new features or functionalities or other product and service offerings, investments, acquisitions, strategic relationships, joint ventures or capital commitments;|
|●||press and other reports, whether or not true, about our business, including negative reports published by short sellers, regardless of their veracity or materiality to us;|
|●||litigation and regulatory allegations or proceedings that involve us and our directors;|
|●||additions to or departures of our management;|
|●||political or market instability or disruptions, and actual or perceived social unrest in the markets where we operate;|
|●||fluctuations of exchange rates among the Renminbi, the Hong Kong dollar and the U.S. dollar;|
|●||sales or perceived potential sales or other dispositions of existing or additional ADSs or other equity or equity-linked securities;|
|●||any actual or alleged illegal acts of our senior management or other key employees;|
|●||any share repurchase program; and|
|●||regulatory developments affecting us or our industry, customers, licensors and other suppliers.|
In particular, our revenues and results of operations have varied significantly in the past and may continue to fluctuate in the future, which may adversely impact the trading price of our ADSs and shares. Historically, usage of our online games has generally increased around the Chinese holidays, in particular winter and summer school holidays. Revenues from certain of our innovative businesses and others, including advertising services, have followed the same general seasonal trend throughout each year, with the first quarter of the year being the weakest quarter due to the Chinese New Year holiday and the traditional close of customers’ annual budgets, and the fourth quarter as the strongest. Our e-commerce business revenues are relatively lower during the Chinese New Year holiday season in the first quarter of each year, while sales in the fourth quarter are higher than each of the preceding three quarters due to a variety of promotional activities conducted by retail and e-commerce businesses in China. Accordingly, you should not rely on quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our results of operations as an indication of our future performance. It is possible that future fluctuations may cause our results of operations to be below the expectations of market analysts and investors. This could cause the trading price of our shares, ADSs or any other securities of ours which may become publicly traded to decline.
Furthermore, the stock market in general experiences price and volume fluctuations that are often unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of companies like us. These market and industry fluctuations may significantly affect the trading price of our shares and/or ADSs. In the past, following periods of instability in the market price of a company’s securities, shareholders have often instituted securities class action suits against that company.
Furthermore, our directors and employees may face additional exposure to claims and lawsuits as a result of their position in other companies. The existence of litigation, claims, investigations and proceedings against our directors and employees, even if they do not involve NetEase, may harm our reputation and adversely affect the trading price of our ADSs.
Substantial future sales or perceived potential sales of our shares, ADSs, or other equity or equity-linked securities in the public market could cause the price of our shares and/or ADSs to decline.
Sales of our shares, ADSs, or other equity or equity-linked securities in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of our shares and/or ADSs to decline significantly. All of our shares represented by ADSs were freely transferable by persons other than our affiliates without restriction or additional registration under the U.S. Securities Act. The shares held by our affiliates are also available for sale, subject to volume and other restrictions as applicable under Rule 144 of the U.S. Securities Act, under trading plans adopted pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 or otherwise.
Divesture in the future of our shares and/or ADSs by shareholders, the announcement of any plan to divest our shares and/or ADS, or hedging activity by third-party financial institutions in connection with similar derivative or other financing arrangements entered into by shareholders, could cause the price of our shares and/or ADSs to decline.
The different characteristics of the capital markets in the United States and Hong Kong may negatively affect the trading prices of our shares and/or ADSs.
We are subject to Hong Kong and U.S. listing and regulatory requirements concurrently. The Nasdaq and Hong Kong Stock Exchange have different trading hours, trading characteristics (including trading volume and liquidity), trading and listing rules, and investor bases (including different levels of retail and institutional participation). As a result of these differences, the trading prices of our shares and our ADSs may not be the same, even allowing for currency differences. Fluctuations in the price of our ADSs due to circumstances peculiar to the U.S. capital markets could materially and adversely affect the price of the shares, or vice versa. Certain events having significant negative impact specifically on the U.S. capital markets may result in a decline in the trading price of our shares notwithstanding that such event may not impact the trading prices of securities listed in Hong Kong generally or to the same extent, or vice versa. Because of the different characteristics of the U.S. and Hong Kong capital markets, the historical market prices of our ADSs may not be indicative of the trading performance of our shares, and vice versa.
Exchange between our ADSs and shares may adversely affect the liquidity and/or trading price of each other.
Subject to compliance with U.S. securities law and the terms of the deposit agreement which governs our ADS program, any holder of ADSs may withdraw the underlying shares represented by the ADSs pursuant to the terms of the deposit agreement for trading on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Holders of our shares may also deposit shares with the depositary in exchange for the issuance of our ADSs. In the event that a substantial number of ADSs are deposited with the depositary in exchange for shares or vice versa, the liquidity and trading price of our ADSs on Nasdaq and shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange may be adversely affected.
The time required for the exchange between ADSs and shares might be longer than expected and investors might not be able to settle or effect any sale of their securities during this period, and the exchange of shares into ADSs involves costs.
There is no direct trading or settlement between Nasdaq and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange on which our ADSs and shares are respectively traded. In addition, the time differences between Hong Kong and New York and unforeseen market circumstances or other factors may delay the withdrawal of shares underlying the ADSs or the deposit of shares in exchange for ADSs. Investors will be prevented from settling or effecting the sale of their securities during such periods of delay. In addition, there is no assurance that any exchange of ADSs into shares (and vice versa) will be completed in accordance with the timelines investors may anticipate.
Furthermore, the depositary for the ADSs is entitled to charge holders fees for various services including for the issuance of ADSs upon deposit of shares, cancelation of ADSs, distributions of cash dividends or other cash distributions, distributions of ADSs pursuant to share dividends or other free share distributions, distributions of securities other than ADSs and annual service fees. As a result, shareholders who exchange shares into ADSs, and vice versa, may not achieve the level of economic return the shareholders may anticipate.
As a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from Nasdaq rules.
As a Cayman Islands exempted company listed on Nasdaq, we are subject to Nasdaq rules. However, Nasdaq rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from Nasdaq rules applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. For instance, we are not required to:
|●||have a majority of the board be independent (although all of the members of the audit committee must be independent under the U.S. Exchange Act);|
|●||have a compensation committee or a nominating or corporate governance committee consisting entirely of independent directors;|
|●||have regularly scheduled executive sessions for non-management directors; or|
|●||have executive sessions of solely independent directors each year.|
We have relied on and intend to continue to rely on some of these exemptions. Specifically, although we plan to seek shareholder’s approval for the amended and restated 2019 Share Plan, our board of directors had previously adopted our 2009 RSU Plan and 2019 Share Plan without seeking shareholder approval which is generally required under Rule 5635(c) of the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules. There is no specific requirement under Cayman Islands law for shareholder approval to be obtained with respect to the establishment or amendment of equity compensation arrangements. In situations where we choose to follow home country practices, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under Nasdaq rules applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.
We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the U.S. Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.
Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the U.S. Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:
|●||the rules under the U.S. Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K;|
|●||the sections of the U.S. Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the U.S. Exchange Act;|
|●||the sections of the U.S. Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and|
|●||the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material non-public information under Regulation FD.|
We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to continue to publish our results on a quarterly basis as press releases, distributed pursuant to Nasdaq rules. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, holders of our ADSs may be afforded less protection or information than they would under the U.S. Exchange Act rules applicable to U.S. domestic companies.
We are a company listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange under Chapter 19C and as such are not subject to certain provisions of the Hong Kong Listing Rules.
As a company listed under Chapter 19C of the Hong Kong Listing Rules, we have adopted different practices as to certain matters as compared with many other companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. We are not subject to certain provisions of the Hong Kong Listing Rules pursuant to Rule 19C.11, including, among others, rules on notifiable transactions, connected transactions, share option schemes, content of financial statements as well as certain other continuing obligations.
In addition, we have been granted a number of waivers and/or exemptions from strict compliance with, among others, the Hong Kong Listing Rules and the SFO. We have also been granted a ruling from the Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong, as a result of which the Takeovers Codes do not apply to us. Therefore, we will adopt different practices as to those matters as compared with other companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange that do not enjoy those exemptions or waivers. However, if 55% or more of the total worldwide trading volume, by dollar value, of our shares and ADSs over our most recent fiscal year takes place on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange will regard us as having a dual primary listing in Hong Kong and we will no longer enjoy certain exemptions or waivers from strict compliance with the requirements under the Hong Kong Listing Rules, the Takeovers Codes and the SFO, which could result in our incurring of incremental compliance costs. Recently on December 19, 2022, we were removed from Nasdaq-100 Index, which may cause a reduction in the holdings of our ADS by some institutional investors on NASDAQ. As a result, there may be an increase in the proportion of our total worldwide trading volume taking place on Hong Kong Stock Exchange, and this in turn will increase our risk of losing our ability to enjoy exemptions or waivers from strict compliance with the requirements under the Hong Kong Listing Rules, the Takeovers Codes and the SFO.
The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the Deposit Agreement.
Holders of ADSs may exercise their voting rights with respect to the underlying shares represented by their ADSs only in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement which governs our ADS programs. Upon receipt of voting instructions from them in the manner set forth in the deposit agreement, the depositary will endeavor, in so far as practicable, to vote the underlying shares represented by their ADSs in accordance with these instructions. However, the depositary and its agents may not be able to send voting instructions to holders of ADSs or carry out their voting instructions in a timely manner. We will make all reasonable efforts to cause the depositary to extend voting rights to holders of ADSs in a timely manner, but they may not receive the voting materials in time to ensure that they can instruct the depositary to vote the underlying shares represented by their ADSs. Furthermore, the depositary and its agents will not be responsible for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, for the manner in which any vote is cast or for the effect of any vote. As a result, holders of ADSs may not be able to exercise their rights to vote and they may lack recourse if the underlying shares represented by their ADSs are not voted as they requested.
Except in limited circumstances, the depositary will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our shares underlying the ADSs if holders of these ADSs do not give voting instructions to the depositary, which could adversely affect the interests of holders of shares and/or the ADSs.
Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will give us a discretionary proxy to vote the shares underlying the ADSs at shareholders’ meetings if holders of these ADSs do not give voting instructions to the depositary, unless:
|●||we have instructed the depositary that we do not wish a discretionary proxy to be given;|
|●||we have informed the depositary that there is substantial opposition as to a matter to be voted on at the meeting;|
|●||a matter to be voted on at the meeting would have a material adverse impact on shareholders; or|
|●||voting at the meeting is made on a show of hands.|
The effect of this discretionary proxy is that, if holders of ADSs fail to give voting instructions to the depositary, they cannot prevent our shares underlying their ADSs from being voted, except under the circumstances described above. This may make it more difficult for shareholders to influence our management. Holders of our shares are not subject to this discretionary proxy.
Holders of ADSs may be subject to limitations on transfer of their ADSs.
ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.
Holders of ADSs may not receive distributions on our shares if the depositary decides it is impractical or unlawful to make such distributions.
The depositary has agreed to pay cash to holders of ADSs to the extent that we decide to distribute cash dividends or other cash distributions on our shares or other deposited securities. Under our current dividend policy, the determination to make dividend distributions and the amount of such distributions in any particular quarter will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will be based upon our operations and earnings, cash flow, financial condition and other relevant factors.
To the extent that there is a distribution in shares, rights or other securities and properties, the depositary has agreed to distribute to holders of ADSs the shares, rights or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. ADS holders will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of shares their ADSs represent. However, the depositary may, at its discretion, decide that it is impractical to make a distribution available to holders of ADSs. For example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the U.S. Securities Act but that are not properly registered or distributed pursuant to an applicable exemption from registration. We have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that holders of ADSs may not receive the distributions we make on our shares if it is impractical for us to make them available. These restrictions may materially reduce the value of the ADSs.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may lose investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements which in turn could negatively impact the trading price of our shares and/or ADSs or otherwise harm our reputation.
The SEC, as required under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, has adopted rules requiring public companies to include a report of management on the effectiveness of such companies’ internal control over financial reporting in their respective annual reports. In addition, an independent registered public accounting firm for a public company may be required to issue an attestation report on the effectiveness of such company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Our management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2022. Our independent registered public accounting firm has also, in its audit report, concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective in all material aspects as of December 31, 2022. Please refer to Item 15 “Controls and Procedures.” However, if we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, our management and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Moreover, effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports. As a result, any failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which in turn could negatively impact the trading price of our shares and/or ADSs or otherwise harm our reputation. Furthermore, we may need to incur additional costs and use additional management and other resources in an effort to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and other requirements going forward.
Holders of our ADSs and shares may have difficulty effecting service of process and enforcing judgments obtained against us and our management, the ability of U.S. authorities to bring actions in the PRC may also be limited, and our Articles of Association include certain provisions that may be different from common practices in Hong Kong.
Our company is incorporated in the Cayman Islands, and the major portion of our assets are located outside the United States and Hong Kong. A substantial portion of our current operations are conducted in the PRC. In addition, some of our directors and executive officers are nationals and residents of countries or areas other than the United States and Hong Kong. A substantial portion of the assets of these persons are located outside the United States and Hong Kong. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for holders of our shares and ADSs to effect service of process within the United States or Hong Kong upon these persons, or to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States or Hong Kong in the event that they believe that their rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws, Hong Kong laws or otherwise. Even if shareholders are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and China may render them unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers. There is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands or the PRC would recognize or enforce judgments. Furthermore, class action lawsuits, which are available in the United States for investors to seek remedies, are generally uncommon in the Cayman Islands and the PRC.
The SEC, the U.S. Department of Justice and other U.S. authorities may also have difficulties in bringing and enforcing actions against us or our directors or executive officers in the PRC. The SEC has stated that there are significant legal and other obstacles to obtaining information needed for investigations or litigation in China. China has adopted a revised securities law which provides, among other things, that without governmental approval in China, no entity or individual in China may provide documents and information relating to securities business activities to overseas regulators which could present significant legal and other obstacles to obtaining information needed for investigations and litigation conducted outside of China.
Furthermore, our Articles of Association are specific to us and include certain provisions that may be different from common practices in Hong Kong, such as the absence of requirements that the appointment, removal and remuneration of auditors must be approved by a majority of our shareholders.
As a result of the foregoing, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests through actions against us, our management, our directors or our major shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States or Hong Kong.
It may be difficult for overseas regulators to conduct investigations or collect evidence within China.
Shareholder claims or regulatory investigation that are common in the United States generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to providing information needed for regulatory investigations or litigation initiated outside China. Although the authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States may not be efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanisms. Furthermore, according to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law, or Article 177, which became effective in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigations or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC. While detailed interpretations of or implementation rules under Article 177 have yet to be promulgated, the inability for an overseas securities regulator to directly conduct investigations or evidence collection activities within China may further increase difficulties you may face in protecting your interests. In addition, on February 24, 2023, CSRC and other three PRC regulatory authorities jointly issued the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions, which took effect on March 31, 2023, according to which, overseas securities regulators and competent overseas authorities may request to inspect, investigate or collect evidence from a domestic company concerning its overseas offering and listing or from the domestic securities companies and securities service providers that undertake relevant businesses for such domestic companies, such inspection, investigation and evidence collection shall be conducted under a cross-border regulatory cooperation mechanism, and the CSRC or other competent Chinese authorities will provide necessary assistance pursuant to bilateral and multilateral cooperation mechanisms. The domestic company, securities companies and securities service providers shall first obtain approval from the CSRC or other competent Chinese authorities before cooperating with the inspection and investigation by the overseas securities regulator or competent overseas authority, or providing documents and materials requested in such inspection and investigation. As the Confidentiality and Archives Administration Provisions are relatively new, there are substantial uncertainties with respect to their interpretation and implementation.
If we are classified as a passive foreign investment company, or a PFIC for United States federal income tax purposes, such classification could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. investors.
We could be classified as a PFIC by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Such characterization could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to you if you are a U.S. investor. For example, U.S. investors who owned our ADSs or shares during any taxable year in which we were a PFIC generally are subject to increased U.S. tax liabilities and reporting requirements for that taxable year and all succeeding years, regardless of whether we actually continue to be a PFIC, although a shareholder election to terminate such deemed PFIC status may be available in certain circumstances.
The determination of whether or not we are a PFIC is made on an annual basis and depends on the composition of our income and assets, including goodwill, from time to time. Specifically, we will be classified as a PFIC for U.S. tax purposes for a taxable year if either (a) 75% or more of our gross income for such taxable year is passive income, or (b) 50% or more of the average percentage of our assets during such taxable year either produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income. For such purposes, if we directly or indirectly own 25% or more of the shares of another corporation, we generally will be treated as if we (a) held directly a proportionate share of the other corporation’s assets, and (b) received directly a proportionate share of the other corporation’s income.
Based upon certain estimate and assumptions, we do not believe that we were a PFIC for the taxable years 2020, 2021 and 2022. We have not obtained any opinion of counsel or any rulings from the Internal Revenue Service regarding our status as a PFIC. The PFIC determination is highly fact intensive and made at the end of each taxable year. We hold and will continue to hold a substantial amount of cash and cash equivalents, and our PFIC status may depend in large part in the market price of our ADSs and shares which is likely to fluctuate. For these reasons, there can be no assurance that we were not a PFIC in prior tax years and will not be a PFIC in or any future taxable year or that the U.S. Internal Revenue Service will not challenge our determination concerning our PFIC status.
If we are or become a PFIC, and, if so, if one or more of our subsidiaries or the VIEs are treated as PFICs, U.S. investors would be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences, such as increased tax liability on capital gains and actual or deemed dividends, interest charges on certain taxes treated as deferred, and additional reporting requirements under U.S. federal income tax laws and regulations. Whether U.S. investors make (or are eligible to make) a timely mark-to-market election may affect the U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. investors with respect to the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our ADSs or shares and any distributions such U.S. investors may receive. We do not expect to provide the information regarding our income that would be necessary in order for a U.S. investor to make a qualified electing fund (the “QEF”) election if we are classified as a PFIC. Investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding all aspects of the application of the PFIC rules to our ADSs or shares.
If we are a PFIC in any year with respect to a U.S. investor, the U.S. investor will be required to file an annual information return on IRS Form 8621 (or other then applicable IRS Form or statement) regarding distributions received on our ADSs or shares, and certain U.S. investors will be required to file an annual information return (also on IRS Form 8621 or other then applicable IRS Form or statement) relating to their ownership of our ADSs or shares. U.S. investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of the PFIC regime and related reporting requirements.
For further discussion of the adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences of our possible classification as a PFIC, see Item 10.E. “Additional Information—Taxation—Material United States Federal Income Taxation Considerations.”
There is uncertainty as to whether Hong Kong stamp duty will apply to deposits of our ordinary shares into or withdrawal of our ordinary shares from the ADS facility or trading of our ADSs.
In connection with our initial public offering of shares in Hong Kong, we established a branch register of members in Hong Kong (the “Hong Kong share register”). Our shares that are traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, as well as shares represented by ADSs, are registered on the Hong Kong share register, and the trading of these shares on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange are subject to the Hong Kong stamp duty. To facilitate conversion between ADSs and shares and their respective trading on Nasdaq and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, we moved a portion of our issued shares, including all of the ordinary shares deposited in our ADS program, from our Cayman share register to our Hong Kong share register.
Under the Hong Kong Stamp Duty Ordinance, any person who effects any sale or purchase of Hong Kong stock, defined as stock the transfer of which is required to be registered in Hong Kong, is required to pay Hong Kong stamp duty. The stamp duty is currently set at a total rate of 0.26% of the greater of the consideration for, or the value of, shares transferred, with 0.13% payable by each of the buyer and the seller.
To the best of our knowledge, Hong Kong stamp duty has not been levied in practice on the trading of ADSs representing shares of companies that are listed in both the United States and Hong Kong and that have maintained all or a portion of their ordinary shares, including ordinary shares underlying ADSs, in their Hong Kong share registers, or on the deposit of shares in or withdrawal of shares from ADS facilities of that kind. However, it is unclear whether, as a matter of Hong Kong law, the trading of ADSs representing shares of these dual-listed companies or the deposit of shares in or withdrawal of shares from those ADS facilities constitutes a sale or purchase of the underlying Hong Kong-registered ordinary shares that is subject to Hong Kong stamp duty. We advise investors to consult their own tax advisors on this matter. If Hong Kong stamp duty is determined by the competent authority to apply to the trading of those ADSs or deposits of shares in or withdrawal of shares from those ADS facilities, the trading price and the value of your investment in our ADSs and/or shares may be affected.
Item 4. Information on the Company
A. History and Development of the Company
Our business was founded in June 1997 and our company was incorporated on July 6, 1999 under the Cayman Companies Act (As Revised). Our principal executive offices are located at NetEase Building, No. 599 Wangshang Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China 310052. Our telephone number is (86-571) 8985-3378.
Our key business milestones are summarized below:
Founding of our business
Launch of free web-based e-mail services, and business model shifted from software development to internet technology with the launch of our NetEase website (“www.163.com”)
Launches of advertisement services, online platforms, online shopping malls, and other internet services in China
Listing on Nasdaq on June 30
Introduction of fee-based premium services and online entertainment services, including online games, wireless value-added services and other subscription-type services
Launch of our first PC-client MMORPG game, Westward Journey Online, our widely popular in-house developed game series
Launch of our Fantasy Westward Journey series, our second widely popular original game series
Founding of Youdao, an intelligent learning company that now offers learning content, applications and solutions, as well as online marketing services
Launch of NetEase Cloud Music, our music streaming platform
Launch of our first mobile game, the mobile version of Fantasy Westward Journey II
Launch of Yanxuan, our e-commerce business
Listing of Youdao on the New York Stock Exchange on October 26
Listing on Hong Kong Stock Exchange on June 11
Listing of Cloud Music on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange on December 2
Our principal capital expenditures for 2022 consisted mainly of the construction of our new office buildings in Hangzhou and Shanghai in China and the acquisition of new servers in connection with the operation of our business for a total of approximately RMB2,100.3 million (US$304.5 million). Our principal capital expenditures for 2021 and 2020 consisted mainly of the construction of our new office buildings in Guangzhou and Shanghai in China and the acquisition of new servers in connection with the operation of our businesses for a total of approximately RMB1,601.8 and RMB1,055.6 million, respectively.
As of December 31, 2022, we had capital expenditure commitments of RMB3,098.7 million (US$449.3 million) for 2023 and thereafter, which primarily consist of commitments made in connection with the construction of new office buildings in Shanghai, Hangzhou and other cities.
The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us, at http://www.sec.gov. Our corporate website can be accessed at http://ir.netease.com.
B. Business Overview
OUR ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
We conduct our business in China through our subsidiaries and the VIEs. Due to legal restrictions and prohibitions on foreign investment in Chinese companies providing, among other things, value-added telecommunications services, internet cultural services and internet publication services, we operate our primary businesses, including the online games, music streaming, online intelligent learning services and internet content services businesses in China mainland, through contractual arrangements with the VIEs and their nominee shareholders. The contractual arrangements provide us with the: (a) the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of the VIEs and their subsidiaries; (b) the economic benefits of these VIEs and their subsidiaries; and (c) an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in the VIEs when and to the extent permissible under PRC laws. The VIEs hold ICP licenses and other regulated licenses in which foreign investment is restricted or prohibited and operate our internet businesses and other businesses. Under the contractual arrangements, we provide our computer software, mobile applications, technologies and relevant services to such VIEs, and they operate the NetEase game services in China, education platforms, websites, as well as our other online businesses. For more information on these agreements, see Item 7.B. “Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions.”
As a result of these contractual arrangements, we bear the risks of, and enjoy the rewards associated with, and therefore are the primary beneficiary of these entities. We therefore consolidate the results of operations of these entities and their subsidiaries in our consolidated financial statements. See also Item 5 “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.”
Any violations by the VIEs of our agreements with them could disrupt our operations or adversely affect our services. See Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors” for a detailed discussion of the risks to NetEase, Inc. regarding its dependency on these companies.
The diagram below summarizes our corporate structure as of March 31, 2023 and identifies the subsidiaries and variable interest entities that together are representative of our major business units, including our significant subsidiaries, as that term is defined under Section 1-02 of Regulation S-X under the Securities Act, and other representative subsidiaries:
|(1)||Hangzhou NetEase Leihuo Technology Co., Ltd. is owned by two of our employees.|
|(2)||Each of Guangzhou NetEase Computer System Co., Ltd. and Hangzhou Yuedu Technology Co., Ltd. is 99.0% owned by William Lei Ding, our founder, Chief Executive Officer and director, and 1.0% by two of our employees, respectively. Our indirect, wholly owned subsidiary NetEase Information Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. is also a party to certain contractual arrangements with Guangzhou NetEase Computer System Co., Ltd.|
|(3)||Beijing NetEase Youdao Computer System Co., Ltd. is 71.1% owned by William Lei Ding and 28.9% owned by the chief executive officer of Youdao, Inc.|
We have a successful online game business, developing and operating a rich portfolio of highly popular titles. We currently offer over 140 mobile and PC games across a wide range of genres, satisfying the ever growing and diversifying needs of the gamer community. Leveraging our user insights and execution expertise, we have also incubated and developed in-house a pipeline of innovative and successful businesses, including intelligent learning and other businesses, ranging from music streaming and e-commerce to advertising services, e-mail, payment platform and other services. For a breakdown of total revenue by segment for the last three financial years, see Item 5.A. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results.”
Games and Related Value-added Services
Our game products and services are comprised of in-house developed mobile and PC games (including certain games co-developed with our collaboration partners) as well as games licensed from renowned global developers. As a global early mover that anticipated and captured the trend toward mobile games, we have significantly expanded our portfolio of mobile game offerings in recent years. At the same time, our flagship titles continue to provide solid support for our online games business with persistent longevity and user loyalty. In addition, while solidifying our leadership position in the Chinese domestic market, we have also expanded globally with launches in Japan, Southeast Asia, the United States and other international markets.
Our Game Library
Mobile games have gained increasing popularity and an expanding user base as internet users in China and across the world rely more and more on mobile devices to access the internet. We are one of the largest mobile game providers globally in terms of game revenue, having commercially launched over 100 mobile games of various genres as of December 31, 2022, including in-house developed and licensed MMORPGs, collectible card games, or CCGs, first-person shooter games, battle arena games, and simulation games, or SLGs, as well as other casual games.
To date, the majority of our most popular mobile games are in-house developed games. We have launched the mobile versions of our in-house developed flagship MMORPGs, including the Fantasy Westward Journey and Westward Journey Online mobile games. We distribute our mobile games through partnerships with major Android- and iOS-based application stores in China, as well as our proprietary distribution channels. We offer a variety of in-game virtual items that players can purchase, including avatars, skills, privileges and other in-game consumables, features and functionalities.
The table below sets forth certain of our major in-house developed mobile games:
Date of Initial
Mobile Version of Fantasy Westward Journey II
Fantasy Westward Journey mobile game
Westward Journey Online mobile game
The mobile version of Ghost
CCG & RPG
Rules of Survival
All About Jianghu
Cooperative Survival RPG
Fantasy Westward Journey 3D
Onmyoji: The Card Game
Fantasy Westward Journey H5
Revelation mobile game
Harry Potter: Magic Awakened*
Casual Party Mobile Game
* Harry Potter: Magic Awakened and Diablo® Immortal™ were co-developed with Warner Bros. Games and Blizzard Entertainment, respectively.
We launched our first PC based MMORPG, Westward Journey Online, in December 2001. Subsequently, we launched Westward Journey Online II in August 2002 and our second original PC based MMORPG, Fantasy Westward Journey, in January 2004. Westward Journey Online II and Fantasy Westward Journey were upgraded to New Westward Journey Online II and Fantasy Westward Journey Online in 2013. Both game series remain popular with gamers today as a result of continued content updating and innovation in play modes over the past two decades. In July 2021, we launched our action battle royale game, Naraka: Bladepoint, which was well received by players with great success and named a “Top Seller” on Steam’s Best of 2021 games list.
PC game players can purchase prepaid points to pay for game playing time, virtual items and other fee-based services that enhance their playing experience such as special powers, costumes, weapons and other accessories. We regularly introduce new virtual items and other fee-based services, as well as change the features of virtual items based on player feedback, market trends and other factors.
The table below sets forth our major in-house developed PC games:
Date(s) of Launch and Major Upgrade
New Westward Journey Online II (a comprehensive upgrade of Westward Journey Online II)
2D MMORPG, classical Chinese setting
Fantasy Westward Journey Online (previously known as Fantasy Westward Journey II)
2D MMORPG, classical Chinese setting
3D MMORPG, classical Chinese setting
New Ghost (a new version of Ghost II)
2.5D MMORPG, classical Chinese setting
3D MMORPG, classical Chinese setting
Action Battle Royale
In addition to our in-house developed mobile and PC games, we also offer games licensed from other international game developers, including Microsoft. For further details, see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Our Services—Games and Related Value-added Services—International Partnerships.” Revenues from licensed games accounted for 9.1%, 9.5% and 9.5% of our total revenues in 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively.
We continue to advance our games and make inroads that expand our reach in overseas markets. We have launched numerous mobile games in global markets since 2015. Our mobile game, Knives Out, has remained popular in Japan since its launch in 2017 and topped Japan’s iOS grossing chart multiple times in 2021 and in 2022. Identity V, which we launched in Japan in 2018, and LifeAfter, which we launched in Japan in 2019, were also ranked in Japan’s iOS grossing chart multiple times in 2021 and in 2022 further evidencing our potential to operate a diverse range of games in overseas markets over the long term.
In addition to our success in Japan, we have expanded our footprint across more regions. In December 2019, we launched MARVEL Super War in several Southeast Asian markets where it topped many of the iOS download charts. In 2020, we also introduced EVE Echoes and MARVEL Duel to overseas markets. In 2021, we launched The Lord of the Rings: Rise to War in Europe, the Americas, Oceania and Southeast Asia. In June 2022, we launched Naraka: Bladepoint on Xbox Series X|S and with Xbox Game Pass for console and PC globally. In the first two weeks of the title being available on the Xbox console, an impressive one million new players have joined the game, which is known for its fast-paced and agile melee combat.
We have also strengthened our global R&D capabilities by launching or acquiring overseas game studios and working with top international game developers. For example:
|●||We launched our first game studio in Montréal, Canada in 2019 and subsequently appointed industry veteran Emile Liang as its lead producer, bringing the studio more than two decades of rich industry expertise in triple-A game production. Subsequently, we acquired SkyBox Labs, a full-service game studio founded in 2011 and based in Burnaby and Victoria, Canada.|
|●||In Japan, we have launched several game studios in the past few years, such as Sakura Studio in 2020, and Nagoshi Studio Inc. in 2022, which is led by Toshihiro Nagoshi, the former producer of the Yakuza game series. In 2021, we also acquired Grasshopper Manufacture Inc., an interactive entertainment software development company based in Tokyo which has more than 20 years of experience in console-focused game development and successfully developed more than 25 games.|
|●||We established our first-ever first-party U.S. studio, Jackalope Games, in 2022 to create new and exciting PC and console games, which is led by industry veteran Jack Emmert who has worked on numerous well-known games. We subsequently set up another U.S.-based first-party studio, Jar of Sparks, led by Jerry Hook, the former Head of Design on the game Halo Infinite.|
|●||In 2022, we acquired Quantic Dream S.A., one of the premier independent game developers in the world based in Paris, France and Montréal, Canada. Quantic Dream is known for creating games with a strong narrative focus and nonlinear stories that reward players’ choices.|
|●||In early 2023, we also announced the establishment of Spliced, a new global, remote-working game studio which brings together a talented group of passionate industry veterans from a variety of backgrounds, including participating in the development of a number of major gaming franchise.|
We also invest in other leading global studios across the world to strengthen our development capabilities and diversity, including investments in Bungie, a game studio in the United States which was later acquired by Sony Interactive Entertainment LLC, and Behaviour Interactive Inc., one of Canada’s leading independent game studios.
Building on our strong in-house content development capabilities, we have formed strategic partnerships and collaborations with world-famous game studios and content owners. As a leader in online games in China, we have successfully attracted leading international game studios and content owners with our development and operational capabilities, such as Blizzard, Marvel, Microsoft and Warner Bros. Games, to co-develop and/or operate games in China and abroad. In addition, we established a series of IP collaborations with various third parties.
For example, we have co-developed and successfully launched Diablo® ImmortalTM, an MMO action-RPG, with Blizzard in 2022 and also entered into a license agreement with Marvel in May 2019 to create original entertainment content based on internationally beloved Marvel characters and stories. We commercially launched MARVEL Super War and Marvel Duel in 2019 and 2020, respectively, and are continuing our joint product development in games that feature Marvel characters for users in China and beyond. In 2019, we launched in the PRC Sky which is an award-winning adventure mobile game featuring unique graphics and gameplay that we have licensed from thatgamecompany.
In addition, in May 2016, we entered into an exclusive agreement with Microsoft, pursuant to which Microsoft agreed to license both the mobile and PC versions of Minecraft to us for operation in China until 2022. In May 2019, we extended the term of the Minecraft license for an additional year to August 2023. We successfully introduced both versions of Minecraft in China across various platforms in 2017.
We have co-developed the mobile game Harry Potter: Magic Awakened with Warner Bros. Games under the Portkey Games label. We successfully launched this game in Chinese mainland, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan in September 2021 and expect to launch globally across various platforms in near future.
We continue to establish and deepen collaboration with other leading international game studios, including entering into a joint development agreement with Codemasters, a leading UK game studio focusing on racing games.
Game Design and Development
Building upon the success of our classic titles, we have accumulated a better and deeper understanding of our users in terms of their interests and preferences in style, aesthetics and gameplay. We have integrated our experience and know-how into the design of our new games, enhancing our ability to deliver popular titles to users. We have established multiple studios of game developers to research and develop new games and expansion packs.
We continue to build upon existing successful games to offer multi-dimensional content by leveraging our in-house developed franchises and intellectual property. Our Fantasy Westward Journey and Westward Journey Online franchises remain popular and have been instilled in the collective memory of a generation of Chinese players. We further expanded the reach of these franchises through the introduction of Fantasy Westward Journey 3D and Fantasy Westward Journey H5 in 2019 and 2020, respectively, captivating both returning fans and new players. We subsequently successfully launched Westward Journey Return in early 2023.
In addition to growing and strengthening our existing franchises, we have continually incubated new ideas and delivered new and long-lasting game titles to our users. For example, one of our younger franchises built in-house, Onmyoji, has spun off three mobile games in MOBA, card and simulation genres, been adapted into a feature motion picture, a musical and a network series and inspired several themed coffee shops. Another in-house developed young IP is Identity V, which we believe has the potential to become another successful NetEase franchise. We are continually enriching this IP through a variety of initiatives, including e-sports, game collaborations and off-line activities. We have hosted a number of high-profile events featuring Identity V, including both international and regional series tournaments. More recently, we drove strong revenue and user growth of Eggy Party, a casual party mobile game initially launched in the Chinese mainland in 2022, accumulating the highest daily active users of any game in our history.
The prerequisite to building a successful franchise is the ability to create popular game IPs in-house, which is propelled by our strong R&D capabilities. Over the past two decades, we have built a large in-house R&D team with talented and passionate game creators. We empower each of our talent with our game-enthusiastic corporate culture and our carefully-designed training programs. For more description on our R&D capabilities, see Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Our Services—Games and Related Value-added Services—Game R&D and Technologies.”
Content Quality and User Experience
We focus on providing an innovative and superior user experience in game design and development and strive to make games of the highest quality. From the initial proposal to final launch, our games will typically go through a number of carefully designed steps including market research, proposal, demo, repeated prototype review and beta testing to ensure that the best quality and user experience can be delivered to our players.
In addition to creating a highly realistic and immersive gaming experience through the use of advanced technologies, we also employ innovative gamification thinking that takes into consideration both the in-game and out-of-game user experience. We have also launched offline gaming experience stores to allow for dynamic and spontaneous offline interactions among game players, as well as create an offline user feedback channel.
Game R&D and Technologies
Our consistent and significant investment in innovative game research and development is a key contributor to the success of our online game business and has been widely recognized in the games industry. In 2019, we were awarded the “Top Ten Game Research and Development Companies in China” award by the China Audio-video and Digital Publishing Association. During the 2022 Chinese Games Industry Annual Conference, a conference supervised by the NPPA and organized by China Audio-video and Digital Publishing Association, Guangzhou NetEase was named as the Enterprise for Excellent Technological Innovation, and our game Infinite Lagrange was awarded for Excellence in Game Art Design.
Our Proprietary Game R&D Capabilities
Proprietary R&D is the key focus of our game business. We continually strengthen and upgrade our game R&D infrastructure through recruiting and cultivating top talent, optimizing our game production pipeline and fostering a culture of creativity and innovation. We have founded a number of in-house research institutions to explore the application of various technologies in games.
We strive to recruit and grow the best talent in the industry. Our NetEase Games Academy is widely recognized in China as a premier online games training institution which offer a wide range of programs for creative minds. We were awarded the 2021 ATD BEST Award by the Association for Talent Development, one of the most authoritative international awards in the global talent development industry. In addition, we established our in-house game advanced technology research institutions to focus on researching, among other things, reinforcement learning, computer vision and graphics, natural language processing, speech synthesis and music generation. Having built a virtuous cycle among our talent, established development pipeline and dynamic culture of innovation and craftsmanship, our strong R&D capabilities continue to enable high-quality production and expansion of successful games.
Key Game Technologies
Our game R&D is centered around using technologies to deliver a superior and differentiated user experience. The key areas of our proprietary game technologies include:
Proprietary game engines: In addition to game development, we have continually invested in proprietary game engine R&D. Since the initial launch of our first game engine, NeoX, in 2005, we have continually expanded and optimized our proprietary engines to systematically support enhanced game features and aesthetics. As part of our early strategy to focus on mobile games, we successfully adapted NeoX to iOS and Android systems as well as developed Messiah, a 3D game engine specifically designed for mobile platforms. We believe that our R&D in game engines and games reinforces each other and promotes a virtuous cycle of innovation. NeoX and Messiah enable us to systematically develop mobile games with the highest quality in lighting, audio, special effects, physics and animation, and other key game features, while our drive for better games in turn motivates development of more powerful engines.
User profile analytics: We perform an in-depth analysis of our users profile by analyzing activities and performances in games, in-game purchasing preferences and other data and information. We leverage our user data on an aggregate basis to guide game development and upgrades, marketing and other activities.
Intelligent non-player characters (NPCs): Enabled by deep learning technology, we have created intelligent NPCs that can join players’ in-game activities, simulate real-life interactions, facial expressions and body language and enable a more engaging gaming experience. We also deploy multiple reinforcement learning technologies to produce NPCs with diverse styles and difficulty levels, catering to a wide range of player preferences.
Natural language processing (NLP): We apply NLP technology in our games to enable players to develop their own storyline by carrying out conversations with NPCs and explore hidden elements in the game, creating an immersive gaming experience for players.
Advanced game graphics: Our advanced game graphics enable game players to create unique characters with customized facial features. We also offer automatic character customization based on real-life photographs uploaded by players. In addition, we deploy high-quality 3D game graphics and automatic scene generation in our games.
Related Value-added Services
The related value-added services include the NetEase CC live streaming service, a platform offering various live streaming content with primary focus on game broadcasting, and other related or ancillary value-added services related to games such as the sales of game-themed merchandise.
Intelligent Learning Services – Youdao
Youdao’s Products and Services
Youdao is a leading technology-focused, intelligent learning company in China and operates in a number of overseas markets. We founded Youdao in 2006 and launched the flagship Youdao Dictionary in 2007, which remains the top language app in China in terms of MAUs. Youdao has experienced rapid growth since its founding and completed its public listing on the New York Stock Exchange in October 2019.
Building on the early success of Youdao Dictionary, we have attracted a massive user base, built a strong brand, and expanded into a broad range of products and services addressing people’s lifelong learning needs, including online knowledge tools, learning services, smart devices and education digitalization solutions. Youdao has historically offered a major portion of its services through its Academic AST Business, but it disposed of such business in 2021 in order to comply with applicable PRC regulatory requirements adopted by the PRC government. Leveraging its strong course and content development capabilities, accumulated from developing its Academic AST Business, Youdao continues to develop online learning services, which mainly include STEAM courses, digital content services, adult and vocational courses, and other courses such as China University MOOC. Youdao’s smart devices seamlessly integrate advanced artificial intelligence, or AI, algorithms and data analytics which supplement its online learning services and further enhance the user experience and efficiency.
Youdao’s revenues consist of three parts: learning services, smart devices and online marketing services. We currently generate the majority of the revenues of Youdao’s learning services from its tutoring services, which mainly include its online courses and digital content services. In addition, we generate revenues from sales of smart devices and from Youdao’s online marketing services through the provision of different formats of advertisements.
Online Knowledge Tools
|●||Youdao Dictionary. Launched in 2007, Youdao Dictionary is Youdao’s first major product and flagship online language tool. Today, it is China’s most popular and trusted online dictionary and translation tool with 47.1 million MAUs in 2022. As of December 31, 2022, Youdao Dictionary offered over 794 million entries across 109 languages.|
|●||Other Online Dictionary and Translation Tools. In addition to Youdao Dictionary, we also offer Youdao Translation, a tool specifically designed to support translation needs of business and leisure travelers across over 31 languages via camera and speech translation, U-Dictionary, an online dictionary and translation app we offer in Indonesia and other overseas markets, and Youdao Kids’ Dictionary, a smart tool that offers translation services in Chinese and English.|
|●||Interactive Learning Apps. We offer a wide range of interactive learning apps to nearly all age groups. We are committed to delivering a fun and effective learning experience across these apps through an abundance of gamified features, as well as social functions allowing users and students to share their learning progress with friends through social networking platforms.|
Learning Services. We have developed a comprehensive offering of learning services catering to the diverse learning needs of different age groups. Our learning service offerings primarily consist of (i) STEAM courses, (ii) digital content services, (iii) adult and vocational courses, and (iv) other courses, such as China University MOOC. In the past, our learning service offerings also included K-9 after-school tutoring courses as part of Youdao’s Academic AST Business, which cover the entire K-9 grades and a wide range of academic subject matters. In order to comply with applicable PRC regulatory requirements adopted by the PRC government in the second half of 2021, we disposed the Academic AST Business in 2021.
|●||STEAM courses. In connection with our disposal of our Academic AST Business, we have been strategically shifting our focus to offering STEAM courses under the brand of Youdao Premium Courses. Our current STEAM courses primarily include (i) Youdao Weiqi, (ii) computer coding courses and (iii) other STEAM courses.|
|●||Digital Content Services. Following the third quarter of 2021, we launched digital content services, including pre-recorded video content that comes with interactive learning features. Through provision of digital content services, we customize learning tracks for students based on their diverse and ever-evolving learning needs, providing them with personalized exercise banks and quizzes to enhance their learning experience. In addition, our video tutorials offer fragmented knowledge and exercises to help students achieve superior learning outcomes.|
|●||Adult and Vocational Courses. We offer adult and vocational courses primarily through our NetEase Cloud Classroom, a platform providing tutoring services mainly targeting adults in China. Our adult and vocational courses primarily include graduate school entrance exam courses, foreign language courses, professional certification and skill courses and digital training courses of Amazon Web Services.|
|●||Other Courses. Our other courses primarily include China University MOOC. MOOC stands for “massive open online course,” which is a course designed to offer free or low-cost access to learning resources to a wide audience. In collaboration with the Higher Education Press, a publishing house under the supervision of the Ministry of Education of the PRC, we operate China University MOOC, a platform offering online courses primarily targeting college students and adults in China.|
Smart Devices. We develop and offer smart devices, including Youdao Dictionary Pen, Youdao Smart Learning Pad, Youdao Listening Pod, Youdao Smart Light, Youdao Pocket Translator and Youdao Super Dictionary, to make learning more productive and efficient for our users. Our smart devices are developed and designed by us or in collaboration with third parties, while the manufacturing of such devices is outsourced to third-party manufacturers under original equipment manufacturer agreements.
|●||Youdao Dictionary Pen. In July 2018, we launched Youdao Dictionary Pen, a sleek, modern electronic translation pen with powerful Chinese/English translation capabilities. With our NMT and OCR technologies, users can simply scan the words and the screen will instantly display the translations and definitions of the words without connecting to the internet. We continued upgrading Youdao Dictionary Pen and launched the People’s Education Version in September 2021. This product marks our first strategic partnership with the People Education Electronic & Audiovisual Press, whose parent company, People’s Education Press, mainly engages in the compilation, publication and distribution of school textbooks and other educational books in the PRC. We launched Youdao Dictionary Pen X5 and Youdao Dictionary Pen P5 in August 2022 and October 2022, respectively, to further expand the vocabulary bank and upgrade other functions of the device.|
|●||Youdao Smart Learning Pad. In August 2022, we launched Youdao Smart Learning Pad Y10, our first intelligent learning pad product. In October 2022, we further introduced Youdao Smart Learning Pad X10, an upgraded version with improved AI-driven precision education, a larger screen and more storage. Backed by our proprietary technology infrastructure, Youdao Smart Learning Pad X10 showcases a unique AI-supported “Learning Dashboard,” which can track and present users’ learning performances and provide personalized suggestions focused on their academic weaknesses. Users can start from either uploading photos of their homework assignments and test papers to the plugged-in system, or conducting quizzes or exercises directly on the device. Leveraging our comprehensive quiz bank with over 200,000 sets of mock exams, Youdao Smart Learning Pad X10 is able to quickly process and generate users’ performance reports encompassing accurate rates, areas of improvements and levels of expertise.|
|●||Youdao Listening Pod. Building on our AI-adaptive learning technology, we launched Youdao Listening Pod in September 2021, a portable learning device that is designed to deliver an immersive English learning experience to users, and offer them with differentiated, interactive listening and speaking practices. With Youdao Listening Pod handy, users can study natural pronunciation by listening and reading over 4500 recording clips of training content, interact and communicate live with AI-powered chat bots and practice on mock questions to score their English listening and speaking capabilities.|
|●||Youdao Smart Light. In April 2022, we launched Youdao Smart Light, an eye-protection desk lamp with interactive, AI-enabled features. Powered by the industry-first desktop-centric learning analysis engine, our Youdao Smart Light can analyze users’ hand or body movements on the desktop to enable a variety of functionalities, such as fingertip word search, sentence intensive reading, and other AI-driven functions. Youdao Smart Light is also able to adaptively adjust the brightness and the color temperature of the light for different learning environments, which is designed to better protect users’ vision and health.|
|●||Youdao Pocket Translator. In November 2017, we launched Youdao Pocket Translator, a pocket-size smart gadget supporting the instant translation of multiple languages to mainly address translation needs while traveling. Leveraging our ASR, OCR and NMT technologies, Youdao Pocket Translator helps to translate speech and texts in images in real time. The latest version of Youdao Pocket Translator supports translation of 107 languages and offers a variety of new functions, such as word memory and pronunciation correction.|
|●||Youdao Super Dictionary. Youdao Super Dictionary is an end-to-end translation tool with polysemy recognition and translation capability. It provides smart, real-time voice translation between any two of the 42 supported languages used in over 200 different countries and regions. Youdao Super Dictionary includes professional vocabulary coverage in diversified subjects such as healthcare, IT, finance, legal, sports and energy. It also offers offline translation between English and Chinese.|
Education Digitalization Solutions. Our education digitalization solutions business currently include technologies and solutions licensed to schools or enterprise customers, such as Youdao Smart Learning Terminal, Youdao Smart Cloud and Youdao Sports. Youdao Smart Learning Terminal is a device that automates paper-based homework processing and provides learning diagnosis through AI technology at schools. Youdao Smart Cloud is a cloud-based platform that allows third-party app developers, smart device brands and manufacturers to access our advanced OCR capabilities and NMT engine and incorporate them into their apps, devices and services through application programming interfaces. Youdao Sports is a sports-centric educational system that collects, processes and analyzes students’ on-campus exercise data points, leveraging our proprietary visual recognition technology.
Technology-driven Learning Experience
We integrate technologies into every major aspect of the learning and teaching process to ensure a superb learning experience across Youdao’s products and services. Over the years, we have built proprietary OCR, NMT, language data mining and voice recognition technologies and data analytics that serve as the foundation to our products and services. Such technologies are iteratively refined based on the vast data generated by our users.
For example, we offer a set of advanced AI-based technologies to make learning more personalized and efficient while maintaining a high level of human touch. We have also built massive “knowledge graphs” depicting different knowledge points, concepts and learning objectives, supported by a large quiz bank curated by our course development professionals to help students understand the subject matter. In addition, we have adopted an adaptive learning approach which tracks each student’s learning progress and dynamically adapts teaching to the student’s unique learning needs. We collect student learning and behavior data throughout their learning cycles to help us understand their learning progress and predict through our adaptive learning model how they will perform to achieve future learning objectives.
Online Music Platform – Cloud Music
Cloud Music’s Products and Services
We founded Cloud Music in 2013 and launched the iconic cornerstone product, NetEase Cloud Music, in the same year. Cloud Music experienced rapid growth since its founding and completed its public listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in December 2021.
Over the years, Cloud Music has built a large-scale, robust and rapidly growing business to provide community-centric online music services and social entertainment services to users. Leveraging NetEase Cloud Music, and ancillary, social entertainment products, it empowers music enthusiasts with a wide variety of technology-driven tools to discover, enjoy, share and create diverse music and music-inspired content and to interact with each other.
Cloud Music generates the majority of the revenue from its music platform through the sales of membership subscriptions for its online music services and sales of virtual items for its social entertainment services. To diversify its revenue streams, Cloud Music has also been actively developing other monetization channels, such as the provisioning of advertising services, sales of digital albums and songs, copyright sublicensing and music-inspired services.
Online Music Services
Cloud Music provides a number of membership subscription packages for users to enjoy high-quality streaming access to our catalogue of music tracks and provide users with services that allow them to purchase access to certain new digital music albums and singles. In addition, Cloud Music offers advertising services for both brand advertisers and performance-based advertisers and sublicense certain of its licensed music content to other parties, including other online music platforms. The MAUs of NetEase Cloud Music was 189.4 million in 2022.
Social Entertainment Services and Others
As the size and engagement level of its online music services’ user base continues to grow, Cloud Music strives to provide more music-inspired social entertainment services to them, which primarily include its live streaming app Look launched in the second half of 2018. Cloud Music generates revenue from live streaming services primarily from sales of virtual items. Users purchase virtual items to gift to live streaming performers as a way for them to show support and appreciation for their performance. Cloud Music also generates revenue from providing membership and value-added services on its social networking platforms. Other revenue sources primarily include movie soundtrack production and ticketing services for offline music events.
Technological-driven Music Experience
Cloud Music needs to ensure that it can deliver a satisfying music experience consistently at scale by continuously innovating and improving its platform and investing in research and development. Our advanced data analytics and other capabilities lay the foundation for the platform’s personalized content recommendations, assisted content creation, interactive social functions and other powerful features that optimize the user experience and realize the unique value of our diverse content. For example, our NetEase Music Audio Lab developed an audio melody extraction solution that broke three world records at the Music Information Retrieval Evaluation eXchange (“MIREX”) in 2020. In addition, with its strong music recognition ability, the lab’s “robust fingerprinting algorithm” achieved the second-best performance in the task of “audio fingerprinting” since MIREX launched this competition in 2014, representing a significant improvement in recognition rate.
Other Innovative Business and Services
We derive our innovative businesses and others revenues primarily from Yanxuan, advertising services, premium e-mail and other value-added services.
Yanxuan, our private label consumer lifestyle brand, was established in 2016. Starting with the development of a well-designed towel, Yanxuan has always focused on optimizing the user experience of its products and improving the lives of consumers in China through simple, practical, comfortable and elegant designs. Over the past seven years, Yanxuan has gradually developed from a shopping platform favored by the new generation of middle-class families in China to a lifestyle brand favored by younger generations from all walks of life.
Yanxuan offers products in a wide range of categories, including home life, clothing, shoes, bags, gourmet food, drinks, pet food and supplies, personal care and cleaning products, among others. Yanxuan pursues the brand concept of “thoughtfully curated products for mindful moments,” which is an extension of NetEase’s overall “user-first” attitude towards its services and products. Yanxuan continuously evaluates the needs and wants of its users and searches around the world to identify and cooperate with the best suppliers available. By better understanding customers’ needs and participating in the production process, Yanxuan can provide customers with competitive prices, excellent quality and quality customer service.
Other Innovative Services
We also offer a wide range of other innovative services, including our (i) www.163.com portal and related mobile app, Wangyi Xinwen, which deliver quality information such as news, sports events, technology, fashion trends and online entertainment to our users and generate revenues mainly from online advertising services, (ii) NetEase Pay, an online payment platform, (iii) NetEase Mail, China’s leading email service provider since 1997, through which we provide free and fee-based email services, and (iv) certain other services, such as customized B-to-B technology services and e-reading services.
TECHNOLOGIES AND IT INFRASTRUCTURE
As one of the inaugural classes of internet platforms and one of the first to provide e-mail services to the masses in China, we have consistently prioritized investing in technologies since our inception. With our strong R&D capabilities and advanced technologies, we successfully digitalized traditional offline services, such as music and learning, and significantly transformed entertainment, learning and other activities. We focus on exploring viable applications of cutting-edge technologies to meaningfully enhance our service offerings and deliver a superior experience for our users. Empowered by advanced core proprietary technologies, we deliver engaging content and services that are highly individualized and personalized across our businesses.
Machine Learning and Other Advanced Technologies
Our machine learning and other advanced technologies enable us to effectively process data generated from across our services and products, optimize recommendations, personalize offerings and predict user behavior. Our key capabilities include:
|●||Advanced technologies focusing on user experience: We have developed advanced technologies such as natural language processing, automatic speech recognition (ASR) and text-to-speech (TTS) technologies that enable us to deliver an enjoyable and effective user experience.|
|●||Machine learning-powered applications, such as content recommendation and customization: We have developed and adapt machine learning and related technologies in content recommendation and customization, which enables us to achieve greater user engagement and stickiness.|
We take a holistic approach to big data innovation, with a focus on gaining deeper understanding of our users in order to provide better services, products and experience. Our platform adopts a service-oriented architecture that allows easy up-scaling and frequent upgrading of the products based on our data analytics capabilities, which mainly include:
|●||Scale: We have accumulated a massive user base and vast and complex user data across our services and products. We maintain a high standard of data protection and privacy while productively using our data to inform our business operations and development.|
|●||High-value data: Content, relationships and behavioral data based on user activities and interactions enable us to create more accurate user profiles. Based on this data, we can be more intuitive and comprehensive in reflecting user interests and preferences and provide valuable user reference data for a wide spectrum of R&D, marketing, user engagement and other strategic initiatives.|
|●||Advanced data analytical technology: Our big data analytical capability enables comprehensive analysis of services and products offered and timely adjustments.|
Graphics, Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality
We have developed numerous technologies to create immersive and effective entertainment and learning experiences. In addition to creating quality 3D game graphics and automatic scene generations in games, we have launched our virtual reality games to offer game players a lifelike, free and dynamic open world game experience. Outside of games, Cloud Music has also leveraged augmented reality in its marketing and user engagement activities.
Our infrastructure and technology have been designed for reliability, scalability and flexibility and are administered by our technical staff. Our NetEase websites and other online and mobile platforms are made available primarily through network servers co-located in the facilities of China Telecom’s affiliates, China Unicom’s affiliates and China Mobile’s affiliates. As of December 31, 2022, there were approximately 141,000 of such co-located servers using leased dedicated lines mainly from various affiliates of China Telecom, China Unicom and China Mobile. We also utilize certain cloud-based servers maintained by third parties such as Amazon.
In addition, we have developed our own systems to facilitate sales planning, targeting, trafficking, inventory management and reporting tools, such as advertisement tracking systems for our advertising services.
We have also established a comprehensive user profile system, which we monitor and review on a regular basis. We also deploy a single sign-on system that allows users to easily access our services offered through the various NetEase products. We intend to continue to use a combination of internally developed software products as well as third-party products to enhance our products and services in the future.
SALES AND MARKETING
We employ a variety of online and traditional sales and marketing programs and promotional activities to build our brand as part of our overall marketing strategy. We focus on building brand awareness through online marketing campaigns, proactive public relations and other offline advertising. We invest in a series of marketing activities to further strengthen our brand image and continue to grow our user base, including collaborating with leading social networking, video and live streaming platforms, TV, movie and stage production companies as well as book and comic publishers to extend our brand to a broader potential user group.
Games and Related Value-added Services
Our mobile games are available on the Apple app store for iOS and third-party Android app stores. In addition, to leverage our existing user bases, we also publish our mobile games through our own internet properties. We conduct in-game marketing campaigns in connection with special holiday editions or launches of new games or expansion packs throughout the year. We have also promoted our games and related value-added services in collaboration with online and offline third-party promoters.
Youdao generates user traffic and leads primarily from online channels. As a key sales and marketing strategy, Youdao cross-sells its comprehensive portfolio of products and services, which allows it to effectively scale its business with modest traffic acquisition and marketing spending. In addition, Youdao also employs mobile marketing, such as brand advertisements and marketing campaigns on app stores, leading mobile news apps and social networking platforms, as well as through optimization techniques designed to improve its ranking in popular search engines’ results. Youdao also engages in offline marketing and branding to supplement its overall sales and marketing strategies.
Cloud Music primarily relies on word-of-mouth referrals and benefits from its high-quality music content, social networking functions and strong brands to attract users to its platforms. Besides word-of-mouth, Cloud Music engages in various marketing and promotional initiatives to promote its brand and increase its user base, including, for example, by partnering with key opinion leaders, holding various marketing campaigns and implementing new technologies and introduce new features to improve user experience.
Innovative Businesses and Others
For our innovative businesses and other online services, content and services are generally provided through mobile applications or their respective websites. Users purchase our services either at a pre-determined package rate or on an item-based basis, and payments are made using third-party online payment platforms or our NetEase Pay. We attract users through a variety of channels, such as our sponsored searches, social and online advertising, internet video and television advertising and other advertising channels. We also offer our customers special pricing discounts in connection with promotion activities and strive to expand our products selection to attract more visitors. Advertising services are conducted through our dedicated advertising services sales force, or through online advertising sales networks and advertising agencies.
We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, patent and trade secrecy laws and contractual restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. We require our employees to enter into agreements requiring them to keep confidential all information relating to our customers, methods, business and trade secrets during and after their employment with us. Our employees are required to acknowledge and recognize that all inventions, trade secrets, works of authorship, developments and other processes, whether or not patentable or copyrightable, made by them during their employment are our property. They also sign all necessary documents to substantiate our sole and exclusive right to those works and to transfer any ownership that they may claim in those works to us.
We have registered a number of domain names. We have also successfully registered numerous trademarks with China’s Trademark Office, including marks incorporating the words “NetEase” and “Yeah!” in English and for marks for “NetEase” as written in Chinese in traditional and simplified Chinese characters. In addition, we have registered trademarks involving Chinese characters and phrases that have meanings relating to our web pages, products and services, including our online games, intelligent learning services, online music services, chat services, e-commerce and certain other online services. In addition, we have registered a number of trademarks involving the “NetEase” name as well as the names and logos of our products and services in the United States, the European Union, the Republic of Korea, Japan, the UK, Thailand and other jurisdictions.
In addition, we have registered our various in-house developed games and other online products with the National Copyright Protection Center of China. Moreover, we have filed certain patent applications with the National Intellectual Property Administration of China, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, European Patent Office and Japan Patent Office, and have obtained Certificates of Design Patent, Utility Model Patent and/or Invention Patent for technologies related to our games, live video, news, educational products, e-commerce and finance, music platform, hardware products, cloud technology, augmented reality technology, audio/video technology, computer technology and e-mail from the National Intellectual Property Administration of China, as well as Certificates of Utility Patent and Certificates of Design Patent in the United States, Europe and Japan.
Moreover, Youdao owns the intellectual property relating to in-house developed content used on its platform and the registrations of the core trademarks “Youdao.” Cloud Music owns the intellectual properties relating to NetEase Cloud Music and the registrations of the core trademarks “Cloud Music.” We also own the intellectual property (other than the content) relating to the NetEase websites and other online and mobile platforms, and the technology that enables online community, personalization, online games, news sharing, instant messaging, video streaming, e-commerce and other services on those platforms. We license content from various freelance providers and other content providers.
While we actively take steps to protect our proprietary rights, such steps may not be adequate to prevent the infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property. See Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property and we may be exposed to infringement claims by third parties.”
Our competition primarily comes from global online game developers and operators, such as Tencent, established online and offline education service and/or product providers in China, as well as leading digital content and entertainment providers. Some of our current and potential competitors are larger than we are, and currently offer, and could further develop or acquire, content and services that compete with us. The areas in which we compete primarily include:
User traffic, time and spending. We compete to attract, engage and retain users based on the design, quality, popularity and efficacy of our content offerings, the overall user experience of our products and services, as well as the effectiveness of our marketing activities.
Talent. We compete for motivated and capable talent, including engineers, game designers, product developers and creative professionals to build compelling content, tools and functions.
Global collaboration opportunities. We compete to win collaboration relationships with well-known global IP and content owners based on our level of expertise in systematically developing in-house developed games, delivering a compelling user experience through operational knowhow and customizing established game titles for rapid expansion into overseas markets.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully against our current or future competitors or that competition will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
Since our founding, we have been committed to realizing the values of creating corporate social responsibility (CSR), striving to contribute to communities and operating in a sustainable way. We aim to improve people’s lives with digital technologies and make positive contributions to material social issues, such as education inequity, disaster recovery, workplace equality and diversity and green and low-carbon development.
We have been focused on reducing education inequity and have launched several initiatives for that purpose. For example, in 2018, we launched the “One Screen” program, aiming to promote the equitable distribution of educational resources and stimulating balanced development among students from different regions. As of the end of 2022, we have donated teaching resources to more than 300 schools across six provinces (Sichuan Province, Gansu Province, Yunnan Province and Guizhou Province, Hunan Province and Chongqing), and nearly 200,000 teachers and students directly benefited from this project. Moreover, in 2022, Cloud Music together and NetEase Public Welfare and The Little Snail Library jointly launched the “Rap Dream Maker” public welfare campaign to bring rap music to rural children and help them realize their music dreams. In this event, we recorded lectures for children on how to make rap music, which have now been delivered to a total of 66 rural schools across Zhejiang Province, Sichuan Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and have been viewed by more than 20,000 students.
We also provide swift and impactful aid to victims of nature disasters. In September 2022, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck Luding County, Ganzi, Sichuan Province, and affected lives of millions of people in the region. Zhejiang NetEase Charity Foundation donated RMB1 million cash and RMB500,000 worth of emergency supplies to help the earthquake victims living through the hardship and to assist them in the post-disaster reconstruction.
We have always adhered to the vision of improving society and have conducted a series of related projects to empower county-level entrepreneurship and innovation. We helped grow the cultural tourism industry in various provinces by fusing their local cultures and commodities with new digital technologies. With Yanxuan, our e-commerce platform, we have assisted local artisans and farmers to sell their products to customers that they had never reached before. We also helped farmers and small to medium-sized enterprises in rural areas to establish their brands or upgrade their existing brands in an effort to revitalize the rural China. Moreover, the players in our games have contributed to advance the vision of social improvement. For example, we connected players on the mobile version of New Ghost, and with their help, we built roads for children in Malong village, a region in Yunnan Province with poor transportation access. We have also launched a long-term public welfare activity “World for all” through our Tianxia game, donating winter clothing for children in rural elementary schools. During the Spring Festival in 2022, Tianxia also cooperated with the public welfare organization Baby Come Home to continuously display information on lost children in the game during the peak hours of 10 p.m. to 12 p.m. every night. Furthermore, in cooperation with the Blue Sky Rescue Team, our game All About Jianghu donated and built 50 solar-powered street lights for the Shuitang Village, an impoverished region in Guizhou Province.
We adhere to our commitment to equality and diversity in our recruitment and career development policies. We won the 2022 SHL China Talent Management Practice Award for Best Recruitment Practices. In February 2023, we were also named as a member of 2023 Bloomberg Gender-Equality Index, which comprises 484 companies that are committed to gender equality in the workplace. We feel deeply honored to have received this recognition. We understand the importance and value in having a diversified workforce and currently recruit talent from more than 40 countries and regions worldwide, including the United States, Japan, South Korea and Canada. We have built a multidimensional talent training and development system to help employees succeed in their areas of expertise and achieve career advancement.
Given that the majority of our operations are conducted online, our impact on the environment is limited. We deployed carbon mitigation measures to reduce our carbon footprint and will continue to explore ways to further improve energy efficiency. We intentionally choose partners with a strong commitment to carbon emission reduction in our collaboration with third-party cloud servers. Moreover, we also spread green and environment-friendly concepts to the public through interesting ways. All of the servers we use meet the criteria for energy efficiency of the Chinese mainland, and we launched a series of activities with the theme of the ecology for the special festival “Earth Day” in our game Infinite Lagrange, cooperated with the China Green Foundation’s Million Forest Project to encourage players to practice and share environmental protection actions in their daily lives and donated 10,000 saplings for reforestation in the Alashan region.
RISK MANAGEMENT AND INTERNAL CONTROL
We have devoted ourselves to establishing and maintaining risk management and internal control systems consisting of policies and procedures that we consider to be appropriate for our business operations, and we are dedicated to continuously improving these systems.
We have adopted and implemented comprehensive risk management policies in various aspects of our business operations, such as financial reporting, information system, internal control, human resources and investment management.
Financial Reporting Risk Management
We have in place a set of accounting policies in connection with our financial reporting risk management, such as financial reporting management policies, budget management policies, treasury management policies, financial statements preparation policies and finance department and staff management policies. We have various procedures and IT systems in place to implement our accounting policies, and our finance department reviews our management accounts based on such procedures. We also provide regular training to our finance department employees to ensure that they understand our financial management and accounting policies and implement them in our daily operations.
Information System Risk Management
Sufficient maintenance, storage and protection of user data and other related information is critical to our business. We have implemented various internal procedures and controls to ensure that user data is protected and that leakage and loss of such data is avoided.
We believe it is crucial that our users understand how we handle their information so that they can make informed choices in deciding how such information is used and shared. To this end, we collect personal information and data from users only with their prior consent, and we offer our users opt-out or opt-in options. We have established and implemented a strict companywide policy on data collection, usage, disclosure, transfer and storage. In accordance with our policy, we are required to go through the following procedures: (i) providing notice to users as to why and how their data is being collected and used; (ii) providing users with the choice to opt-out or opt-in; (iii) making continuous efforts to prevent loss or leakage of user data; and (iv) providing users with access to their own personal information collected by us.
We have implemented a network of process and software controls to protect individual personal information and privacy. We encrypt user data in network transmission. For back-end storage, we also use various encryption technologies at software and hardware levels to protect sensitive user data. To minimize the risk of data loss or leakage, we conduct regular data backup and data recovery tests.
We prioritize user data security and privacy by strictly following our defined policy. We have obtained the certificates of ISO 27001 and filing certificates of multi-level protection scheme (MLPS) for some of our entities and products. We have established a coordination mechanism with third-party agencies to handle information security threats in a timely manner.
At the enterprise level, we established a systematic and universal user account authorization and management mechanism based on which we periodically review the status of user accounts and the related authorization information. We regularly perform security configuration assessment on our databases and servers and implement procedures for system log management.
We have put in place a series of back-up management procedures. We deploy different back-up mechanisms, including local back-ups and remote back-ups, depending on the needs of our business, to minimize the risk of user data loss or leakage. We have also established protocols for the design, implementation and monitoring of remote back-ups. We also require any access to or processing of user data to go through strict assessment and approval procedures in order to ensure that only valid and legitimate requests are executed.
We provide information security training to our employees and conduct ongoing trainings, and we discuss any issues or necessary updates from time to time. We also have an emergency response mechanism to evaluate critical risks, formulate disaster response plans and perform emergency drills on a regular basis. In addition, each of our business units is responsible for ensuring that the usage, maintenance and protection of user data are in compliance with our internal information security policy and the applicable laws and regulations.
Internal Control Risk Management
We have designed and adopted strict internal procedures to ensure the compliance of our business operations with the relevant rules and regulations. Our internal control team works closely with our legal, compliance and finance departments as well as our business units to: (a) perform risk assessments and give advice on risk management strategies; (b) improve business process efficiency and monitor internal control effectiveness; and (c) promote risk awareness throughout the NetEase group.
In accordance with our internal procedures, our in-house legal department performs the basic function of reviewing and updating the form of contracts we enter into with our consumers, merchants and relevant third-parties. Our legal department examines the contract terms and reviews relevant documents for our business operations, and the necessary underlying due diligence materials, before we enter into any contract or business arrangements.
Our in-house legal department reviews our services for regulatory compliance before they are made available to the general public. Our in-house legal department works with relevant business units to obtain requisite governmental approvals or consents, including preparing and submitting all necessary documents for filing with relevant government authorities within the prescribed regulatory timelines.
We continually review the implementation of our risk management policies and measures to ensure our policies and implementation are effective and sufficient.
Human Resources Risk Management
We provide regular and specialized training tailored to: (a) the needs of our employees in different departments, and (b) our anti-bribery & corruption policy. We regularly organize internal training sessions conducted by senior employees or outside consultants.
We have in place an employee handbook and a code of conduct approved by our management and have distributed them to all our employees. The handbook contains internal rules and guidelines regarding work ethics, fraud prevention mechanisms, negligence and corruption. We provide employees with regular training as well as resources to explain the guidelines contained in the employee handbook.
We have in place an anti-bribery and corruption policy to safeguard against any corruption within the NetEase group. The policy explains potential bribery and corruption conduct and our anti-bribery and corruption measures. We make our internal reporting channel open and available for our staff to report any bribery and corruption acts, and our staff can also make anonymous reports to our ethics committee. Our ethics committee is responsible for investigating the reported incidents and taking appropriate measures.
Investment Risk Management
We invest in or acquire businesses that are complementary to our business, such as businesses that can expand the services we offer and strengthen our R&D capabilities.
In general, we intend to hold our investments for the long term. In order to protect our interests as shareholders and control the potential risks associated with our investments, we generally request our investee companies to grant us customary investor protective rights.
Our finance department monitors the deal performance on a regular basis. Our finance and legal departments cooperate with deal team on deal analysis, communication, execution, risk control and reporting. Any material factors will be timely reported to the senior management or board of director for further decision.
Audit Committee Experience and Qualification and Board Oversight
We have established an audit committee to monitor the implementation of our risk management policies across the NetEase group on an ongoing basis to ensure that our internal control system is effective in identifying, managing and mitigating risks involved in our business operations.
The audit committee consists of three members, namely Grace Hui Tang, Alice Cheng and Joseph Tong, all of whom are independent non-executive directors. Grace Hui Tang is the chairperson of the audit committee. For the professional qualifications and experiences of the members of our audit committee, see “Directors and Senior Management.”
We also maintain internal control and audit departments which are responsible for reviewing the effectiveness of internal controls and reporting to the audit committee and senior management on any issues identified. Our internal control and audit department members hold regular meetings with management to discuss any internal control issues we face and the corresponding measures to implement toward resolving such issues. The internal audit department reports to the audit committee to ensure that any major issues identified are channeled to the committee on a timely basis. The audit committee then discusses the issues and reports to the board of directors, if necessary.
Ongoing Measures to Monitor the Implementation of Risk Management Policies
Our audit committee, internal audit department and senior management together monitor the implementation of our risk management policies on an ongoing basis to ensure our policies and implementation are effective and sufficient.
We consider our insurance coverage to be adequate as we have in place all the mandatory insurance policies required by Chinese laws and regulations and in accordance with the commercial practices in our industry. Our employee-related insurance consists of pension insurance, maternity insurance, unemployment insurance, work-related injury insurance, medical insurance and housing funds, as required by Chinese laws and regulations. We also purchase supplemental commercial medical insurance and accident insurance for our employees.
In line with general market practice, we do not maintain any business interruption insurance or product liability insurance, which are not mandatory under PRC laws. We do not maintain key person life insurance, insurance policies covering damages to our network infrastructures or information technology systems. We carry property insurance with low coverage limits that may not be adequate to compensate us for all losses, particularly with respect to loss of business and reputation that may occur. We also do not maintain insurance policies against risks relating to the Contractual Arrangements. In 2022, we did not make any material insurance claims in relation to our business.
PERMISSIONS REQUIRED FROM THE PRC AUTHORITIES FOR OUR OPERATIONS AND OFFERINGS
We believe our China mainland subsidiaries and the VIEs have obtained the requisite licenses and permits from the PRC government authorities that are necessary for their material business operations in China, except for our Online Publishing Service License which we are in the process of renewing as disclosed in Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Games and Related Value-added Services—Any difficulties or delays in receiving approval from the relevant government authorities for our new games or new expansion packs for, or material changes to, our existing games could adversely affect such games’ popularity and profitability,” Such licenses and permits include, among others, Value-added Telecommunications Business Operating License, Online Publishing Service License, Internet Audiovisual Program Services License, Internet Cultural Business License, and Commercial Performance License. If we or any of the VIEs is found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures. In addition, if we had inadvertently concluded that such approvals, permits, registrations or filings were not required, or if applicable laws, regulations or interpretations change in a way that requires us to obtain such approval, permits, registrations or filings in the future, we may be unable to obtain such necessary approvals, permits, registrations or filings in a timely manner, or at all, and such approvals, permits, registrations or filings may be rescinded even if obtained. Any such circumstance may subject us to fines and other regulatory, civil or criminal liabilities, and we may be ordered by the competent government authorities to suspend relevant operations, which will materially and adversely affect our business operation.
Given the uncertainties of interpretation and implementation of relevant laws and regulations and the enforcement practice by relevant government authorities, we may be required to obtain additional licenses, permits, filings, or approvals for our business operations in the future. For more detailed information, see Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China.”
In connection with our prior overseas offerings and listing status, as of the date of the filing of this annual report, we (i) have not been required to obtain any permission from or complete any filing with the CSRC, and (ii) have not been required to go through a cybersecurity review by the CAC. As advised by our PRC legal counsel, under the currently effective PRC laws and regulations, we are not required to obtain any permission from or complete any filing with CSRC or go through a cybersecurity review by the CAC to maintain our listing status, based on their consultation with competent government authorities.
However, the PRC government has promulgated certain regulations and rules to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers. On February 17, 2023, the CSRC released the Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies and five supporting guidelines, or, collectively, the Filing Rules, which will take effect on March 31, 2023. According to the Filing Rules, domestic companies in China mainland that directly or indirectly offer or list their securities in an overseas market are required to file with the CSRC. In addition, an overseas listed company must also submit the filing with respect to its follow-on offerings, issuance of convertible corporate bonds and exchangeable bonds, and other equivalent offering activities, within a specific time frame requested under the Filing Rules. Therefore, we will be required to file with the CSRC for our overseas offering of equity and equity linked securities in the future within the applicable scope of the Filing Rules. For more detailed information, see Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—The approval, filing or other requirements of the CSRC, CAC or other PRC government authorities may be required under PRC law in connection with our issuance of securities overseas or maintenance of the listing status of our ADSs or ordinary shares, and the PRC government’s oversight and discretion over our business operations could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs or ordinary shares.”
Regulations on Foreign Investment
On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress promulgated the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law, which became effective on January 1, 2020, and replaced the Wholly Foreign-owned Enterprises Law, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Ventures Law, and the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Ventures Law. Investment activities in the PRC by foreign investors are principally governed by the Catalogue of Industries for Encouraging Foreign Investment, or the Encouraging Catalogue, and the Special Management Measures (Negative List) for the Access of Foreign Investment, or the Negative List, both of which were promulgated and are amended from time to time by the MOFCOM, and the NDRC. The Encouraging Catalogue and the Negative List lay out the basic framework for foreign investment in China, classifying businesses into three categories with regard to foreign investment: “encourage,” “restricted” and “prohibited.” Industries not listed in the Encouraging Catalogue and the Negative List are generally deemed as falling into a fourth category “permitted” unless specifically restricted by other PRC laws. On October 26, 2022, MOFCOM and the NDRC released the Catalog of Industries for Encouraging Foreign Investment (2022 Version), which became effective on January 1, 2023, to replace the previous Encouraging Catalogue. On December 27, 2021, MOFCOM and the NDRC released the Special Management Measures (Negative List) for the Access of Foreign Investment (2021 Version), which became effective on January 1, 2022, to replace the previous 2020 Negative List. To comply with the above foreign investment restrictions and to obtain necessary licenses and permits in industries that are currently subject to foreign investment restrictions in China, we operate in China through the VIEs. See Item 4.B. “Information on the Company—Business Overview—Our Organizational Structure.” There remain substantial uncertainties with respect to the interpretation and application of existing or future PRC laws and regulations on foreign investment. See Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure.”
According to the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law, foreign investment shall enjoy “pre-entry national treatment,” which generally means that at an investment-entrance stage, foreign investment should be treated no less favorably than domestic investment, except for foreign investments in industries deemed to be “restricted” or “prohibited” in the “negative list.” The 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law provides that foreign invested entities operating in “restricted” or “prohibited” industries will require entry clearance and other approvals. However, uncertainties still exist when it comes to interpreting or implementing the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law and its implementation rules. For example, the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law does not comment on the concept of “de facto control” or contractual arrangements with variable interest entities. It does, however, have a catch-all provision under the definition of “foreign investment,” which includes investments made by foreign investors in China through means stipulated by laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. As such, there remains a leeway for future laws to define contractual arrangements as a form of “foreign investment.” Furthermore, the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law provides that foreign invested enterprises established according to the existing laws regulating foreign investment may maintain their structure and corporate governance for five years after the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law is implemented, which means that foreign invested enterprises may be required to adjust their structure and corporate governance after five years. For further details, please see Item 3.D. “Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure.”
On December 26, 2019, the State Council promulgated the Implementation Rules to the Foreign Investment Law, which became effective on January 1, 2020, and repealed the Regulations on Implementing the Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law of the PRC, the Provisional Regulations on the Duration of Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture, the Regulations on Implementing the Wholly Foreign-Invested Enterprise Law of the PRC, and the Regulations on Implementing the Sino-Foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law of the PRC. The implementation rules further clarified and elaborated on the relevant provisions of the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law. However, given that these implementation rules were enacted not long ago, a number of uncertainties still exist in relation to the interpretation and implementation of the 2019 PRC Foreign Investment Law.
On December 30, 2019, the MOFCOM and the SAMR, jointly promulgated the Measures for Information Reporting on Foreign Investment, which became effective on January 1, 2020. Pursuant to the measures, where a foreign investor directly or indirectly carries out investment activities in China, the foreign investor or the foreign-invested enterprise must submit the investment information to the competent commerce department for further handling.
On December 19, 2020, MOFCOM and the NDRC jointly promulgated the Measures for the Security Review of Foreign Investments, which took effect on January 18, 2021, pursuant to which a security review shall be conducted for foreign investments that affect or may affect national security. The measures established a working mechanism for the security review of foreign investments, or the Security Review Working Mechanism, to be responsible for organizing, coordinating and guiding the security review of foreign investments. For foreign investments in material information technology and internet products and services which relate to national security, the foreign investors who obtain the actual controlling stake in the investee enterprise in the PRC shall declare to the office of the Security Review Working Mechanism prior to implementation of the investments.
Regulations on Telecommunication Services
In September 2000, China’s State Council promulgated the Telecommunications Regulations of the PRC (the “Telecom Regulations”), which was last revised in February 2016. The Telecom Regulations categorized all telecommunications businesses in China as either a “basic telecommunications business” or “value-added telecommunications business,” ICP services, e-mail services, and other telecommunications businesses operated by us are classified as value-added telecommunications businesses. According to the Telecom Regulations, the commercial operator of these services must obtain an operating license. The Telecom Regulations also set out extensive guidelines with respect to different aspects of telecommunications operations in China.
On December 28, 2015, MIIT issued the Telecommunication Services Classification Catalog (2015 Edition). The 2015 Catalog took effect on March 1, 2016 and was amended on June 6, 2019. The Catalog divided the information services business into an additional five sub-categories and reclassified the online data